The Art of Electronics 3rd ed

The Art of Electronics 3rd ed

(Parte 1 de 9)

The Art of Electronics Third Edition

At long last, here is the thoroughly revised and updated, and long-anticipated, third edition of the hugely successful The Art of Electronics. Widely accepted as the best single authoritative text and reference on electronic circuit design, both analog and digital, the first two editions were translated into eight languages, and sold more than a million copies worldwide. The art of electronics is explained by stressing the methods actually used by circuit designers – a combination of some basic laws, rules of thumb, and a nonmathematical treatment that encourages understanding why and how a circuit works.

Paul Horowitz is a Research Professor of Physics and of Electrical Engineering at Harvard University, where in 1974 he originated the Laboratory Electronics course from which emerged The Art of Electronics. In addition to his work in circuit design and electronic instrumentation, his research interests have included observational astrophysics, x-ray and particle microscopy, and optical interferometry. He is one of the pioneers of the search for intelligent life beyond Earth (SETI). He is the author of some 200 scientific articles and reports, has consulted widely for industry and government, and is the designer of numerous scientific and photographic instruments.

Winfield Hill is by inclination an electronics circuit-design guru. After dropping out of the Chemical Physics graduate program at Harvard University, and obtaining an E.E. degree, he began his engineering career at Harvard’s Electronics Design Center. After 7 years of learning electronics at Harvard he founded Sea Data Corporation, where he spent 16 years designing instruments for Physical Oceanography. In 1988 he was recruited by Edwin Land to join the Rowland Institute for Science. The institute subsequently merged with Harvard University in 2003. As director of the institute’s Electronics Engineering Lab he has designed some 500 scientific instruments. Recent interests include high-voltage RF (to 15kV), high-current pulsed electronics (to 1200A), low-noise amplifiers (to sub-nV and pA), and MOSFET pulse generators.

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THE ART OF ELECTRONICS Third Edition

Paul Horowitz HARVARD UNIVERSITY Winfield Hill ROWLAND INSTITUTE AT HARVARD

32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USA

Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge.

It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning, and research at the highest international levels of excellence.

w.cambridge.org Information on this title: w.cambridge.org/9780521809269

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 1980 Second edition 1989 Third edition 2015

Printed in the United States of America A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library. ISBN 978-0-521-80926-9 Hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet websites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

7th printing 2016 with corrections

To Vida and Ava To Vida and Ava

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In Memoriam: Jim Williams, 1948–2011 In Memoriam: Jim Williams, 1948–2011

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List of Tables xi Preface to the First Edition xxv Preface to the Second Edition xxvii Preface to the Third Edition xxix

1.2 Voltage, current, and resistance 1 1.2.1 Voltage and current 1 1.2.2 Relationship between voltage and current: resistors 3 1.2.3 Voltage dividers 7 1.2.4 Voltage sources and current sources 8 1.2.5 Thevenin equivalent circuit 9 1.2.6 Small-signal resistance 12 1.2.7 An example: “It’s too hot!” 13 1.3 Signals 13 1.3.1 Sinusoidal signals 14 1.3.2 Signal amplitudes and decibels 14 1.3.3 Other signals 15 1.3.4 Logic levels 17 1.3.5 Signal sources 17

1.4.5 Not quite perfect28

1.4 Capacitors and ac circuits 18 1.4.1 Capacitors 18 1.4.2 RC circuits: V and I versus time 21 1.4.3 Differentiators 25 1.4.4 Integrators 26

1.6 Diodes and diode circuits 31 1.6.1 Diodes 31 1.6.2 Rectification 31 1.6.3 Power-supply filtering 32 1.6.4 Rectifier configurations for power supplies 3

1.6.5 Regulators 34 1.6.6 Circuit applications of diodes 35 1.6.7 Inductive loads and diode protection 38 1.6.8 Interlude: inductors as friends 39 1.7 Impedance and reactance 40 1.7.1 Frequency analysis of reactive circuits 41 1.7.2 Reactance of inductors 4 1.7.3 Voltages and currents as complex numbers 4 1.7.4 Reactance of capacitors and inductors 45 1.7.5 Ohm’s law generalized 46 1.7.6 Power in reactive circuits 47 1.7.7 Voltage dividers generalized 48 1.7.8 RC highpass filters 48 1.7.9 RC lowpass filters 50 1.7.10 RC differentiators and integrators in the frequency domain 51 1.7.1 Inductors versus capacitors 51 1.7.12 Phasor diagrams 51 1.7.13 “Poles” and decibels per octave 52 1.7.14 Resonant circuits 52 1.7.15 LC filters 54 1.7.16 Other capacitor applications 54 1.7.17 Thevenin’s theorem generalized 5 1.8 Putting it all together – an AM radio 5 1.9 Other passive components 56 1.9.1 Electromechanical devices: switches 56 1.9.2 Electromechanical devices: relays 59 1.9.3 Connectors 59 1.9.4 Indicators 61 1.9.5 Variable components 63 1.10 A parting shot: confusing markings and itty-bitty components 64 1.10.1 Surface-mount technology: the joy and the pain 65 x Contents Art of Electronics Third Edition

TWO: Bipolar Transistors 71 2.1 Introduction 71 2.1.1 First transistor model: current amplifier 72 2.2 Some basic transistor circuits 73 2.2.1 Transistor switch 73 2.2.2 Switching circuit examples 75 2.2.3 Emitter follower 79 2.2.4 Emitter followers as voltage regulators 82 2.2.5 Emitter follower biasing 83 2.2.6 Current source 85 2.2.7 Common-emitter amplifier 87 2.2.8 Unity-gain phase splitter 8 2.2.9 Transconductance 89 2.3 Ebers–Moll model applied to basic transistor circuits 90 2.3.1 Improved transistor model: transconductance amplifier 90 2.3.2 Consequences of the

Ebers–Moll model: rules of thumb for transistor design 91 2.3.3 The emitter follower revisited 93 2.3.4 The common-emitter amplifier revisited 93 2.3.5 Biasing the common-emitter amplifier 96 2.3.6 An aside: the perfect transistor 9 2.3.7 Current mirrors 101 2.3.8 Differential amplifiers 102 2.4 Some amplifier building blocks 105 2.4.1 Push–pull output stages 106 2.4.2 Darlington connection 109 2.4.3 Bootstrapping 1 2.4.4 Current sharing in paralleled

BJTs 112 2.4.5 Capacitance and Miller effect 113 2.4.6 Field-effect transistors 115 2.5 Negative feedback 115 2.5.1 Introduction to feedback 116 2.5.2 Gain equation 116 2.5.3 Effects of feedback on amplifier circuits 117 2.5.4 Two important details 120 2.5.5 Two examples of transistor amplifiers with feedback 121 2.6 Some typical transistor circuits 123

2.6.1 Regulated power supply 123 2.6.2 Temperature controller 123 2.6.3 Simple logic with transistors and diodes 123

Additional Exercises for Chapter 2 124 Review of Chapter 2 126

THREE: Field-Effect Transistors 131 3.1 Introduction 131 3.1.1 FET characteristics 131 3.1.2 FET types 134 3.1.3 Universal FET characteristics 136 3.1.4 FET drain characteristics 137 3.1.5 Manufacturing spread of FET characteristics 138 3.1.6 Basic FET circuits 140 3.2 FET linear circuits 141 3.2.1 Some representative JFETs: a brief tour 141 3.2.2 JFET current sources 142 3.2.3 FET amplifiers 146 3.2.4 Differential amplifiers 152 3.2.5 Oscillators 155 3.2.6 Source followers 156 3.2.7 FETs as variable resistors 161 3.2.8 FET gate current 163 3.3 A closer look at JFETs 165 3.3.1 Drain current versus gate voltage 165 3.3.2 Drain current versus drain-source voltage: output conductance 166 3.3.3 Transconductance versus drain current 168 3.3.4 Transconductance versus drain voltage 170 3.3.5 JFET capacitance 170 3.3.6 Why JFET (versus MOSFET) amplifiers? 170 3.4 FET switches 171 3.4.1 FET analog switches 171 3.4.2 Limitations of FET switches 174 3.4.3 Some FET analog switch examples 182 3.4.4 MOSFET logic switches 184 3.5 Power MOSFETs 187 3.5.1 High impedance, thermal stability 187 3.5.2 Power MOSFET switching parameters 192

Art of Electronics Third Edition Contents xi

3.5.3 Power switching from logic levels 192 3.5.4 Power switching cautions 196 3.5.5 MOSFETs versus BJTs as high-current switches 201 3.5.6 Some power MOSFET circuit examples 202 3.5.7 IGBTs and other power semiconductors 207 3.6 MOSFETs in linear applications 208 3.6.1 High-voltage piezo amplifier 208 3.6.2 Some depletion-mode circuits 209 3.6.3 Paralleling MOSFETs 212 3.6.4 Thermal runaway 214 Review of Chapter 3 219

FOUR: Operational Amplifiers 223 4.1 Introduction to op-amps – the “perfect component” 223 4.1.1 Feedback and op-amps 223 4.1.2 Operational amplifiers 224 4.1.3 The golden rules 225 4.2 Basic op-amp circuits 225 4.2.1 Inverting amplifier 225 4.2.2 Noninverting amplifier 226 4.2.3 Follower 227 4.2.4 Difference amplifier 227 4.2.5 Current sources 228 4.2.6 Integrators 230 4.2.7 Basic cautions for op-amp circuits 231 4.3 An op-amp smorgasbord 232 4.3.1 Linear circuits 232 4.3.2 Nonlinear circuits 236 4.3.3 Op-amp application: triangle-wave oscillator 239 4.3.4 Op-amp application: pinch-off voltage tester 240 4.3.5 Programmable pulse-width generator 241 4.3.6 Active lowpass filter 241 4.4 A detailed look at op-amp behavior 242 4.4.1 Departure from ideal op-amp performance 243 4.4.2 Effects of op-amp limitations on circuit behavior 249 4.4.3 Example: sensitive millivoltmeter 253 4.4.4 Bandwidth and the op-amp current source 254

4.5 A detailed look at selected op-amp circuits 254 4.5.1 Active peak detector 254 4.5.2 Sample-and-hold 256 4.5.3 Active clamp 257 4.5.4 Absolute-value circuit 257 4.5.5 A closer look at the integrator 257 4.5.6 A circuit cure for FET leakage 259 4.5.7 Differentiators 260 4.6 Op-amp operation with a single power supply 261 4.6.1 Biasing single-supply ac amplifiers 261 4.6.2 Capacitive loads 264 4.6.3 “Single-supply” op-amps 265 4.6.4 Example: voltage-controlled oscillator 267 4.6.5 VCO implementation: through-hole versus surface-mount 268 4.6.6 Zero-crossing detector 269 4.6.7 An op-amp table 270 4.7 Other amplifiers and op-amp types 270 4.8 Some typical op-amp circuits 274 4.8.1 General-purpose lab amplifier 274 4.8.2 Stuck-node tracer 276 4.8.3 Load-current-sensing circuit 277 4.8.4 Integrating suntan monitor 278 4.9 Feedback amplifier frequency compensation 280 4.9.1 Gain and phase shift versus frequency 281 4.9.2 Amplifier compensation methods 282 4.9.3 Frequency response of the feedback network 284

Additional Exercises for Chapter 4 287 Review of Chapter 4 288

FIVE: Precision Circuits 292 5.1 Precision op-amp design techniques 292 5.1.1 Precision versus dynamic range 292 5.1.2 Error budget 293 5.2 An example: the millivoltmeter, revisited 293 5.2.1 The challenge: 10mV, 1%, 10MΩ, 1.8V single supply 293 5.2.2 The solution: precision RRIO current source 294 5.3 The lessons: error budget, unspecified parameters 295 xii Contents Art of Electronics Third Edition

5.4 Another example: precision amplifier with null offset 297 5.4.1 Circuit description 297 5.5 A precision-design error budget 298 5.5.1 Error budget 299 5.6 Component errors 299 5.6.1 Gain-setting resistors 300 5.6.2 The holding capacitor 300 5.6.3 Nulling switch 300 5.7 Amplifier input errors 301 5.7.1 Input impedance 302 5.7.2 Input bias current 302 5.7.3 Voltage offset 304 5.7.4 Common-mode rejection 305 5.7.5 Power-supply rejection 306 5.7.6 Nulling amplifier: input errors 306 5.8 Amplifier output errors 307 5.8.1 Slew rate: general considerations 307 5.8.2 Bandwidth and settling time 308 5.8.3 Crossover distortion and output impedance 309 5.8.4 Unity-gain power buffers 311 5.8.5 Gain error 312 5.8.6 Gain nonlinearity 312 5.8.7 Phase error and “active compensation” 314 5.9 RRIO op-amps: the good, the bad, and the ugly 315 5.9.1 Input issues 316 5.9.2 Output issues 316 5.10 Choosing a precision op-amp 319 5.10.1 “Seven precision op-amps” 319 5.10.2 Number per package 322 5.10.3 Supply voltage, signal range 322 5.10.4 Single-supply operation 322 5.10.5 Offset voltage 323 5.10.6 Voltage noise 323 5.10.7 Bias current 325 5.10.8 Current noise 326 5.10.9 CMRR and PSRR 328

5.10.1 Distortion 329 5.10.12 “Two out of three isn’t bad”: creating a perfect op-amp 332 5.1 Auto-zeroing (chopper-stabilized) amplifiers 3 5.1.1 Auto-zero op-amp properties 334 5.1.2 When to use auto-zero op-amps 338

5.1.3 Selecting an auto-zero op-amp 338 5.1.4 Auto-zero miscellany 340

5.12 Designs by the masters: Agilent’s accurate

DMMs 342 5.12.1 It’s impossible! 342 5.12.2 Wrong – it is possible! 342 5.12.3 Block diagram: a simple plan 343 5.12.4 The 34401A 6.5-digit front end 343 5.12.5 The 34420A 7.5-digit frontend 344

5.13 Difference, differential, and instrumentation amplifiers: introduction 347

5.14 Difference amplifier 348 5.14.1 Basic circuit operation 348 5.14.2 Some applications 349 5.14.3 Performance parameters 352 5.14.4 Circuit variations 355

5.15 Instrumentation amplifier 356 5.15.1 A first (but naive) guess 357 5.15.2 Classic three-op-amp instrumentation amplifier 357 5.15.3 Input-stage considerations 358 5.15.4 A “roll-your-own” instrumentation amplifier 359 5.15.5 A riff on robust input protection 362

5.16 Instrumentation amplifier miscellany 362 5.16.1 Input current and noise 362 5.16.2 Common-mode rejection 364 5.16.3 Source impedance and CMRR 365 5.16.4 EMI and input protection 365 5.16.5 Offset and CMRR trimming 366 5.16.6 Sensing at the load 366 5.16.7 Input bias path 366 5.16.8 Output voltage range 366 5.16.9 Application example: current source 367 5.16.10 Other configurations 368 5.16.1 Chopper and auto-zero instrumentation amplifiers 370 5.16.12 Programmable gain instrumentation amplifiers 370 5.16.13 Generating a differential output 372

5.17 Fully differential amplifiers 373 5.17.1 Differential amplifiers: basic concepts 374 5.17.2 Differential amplifier application example: wideband analog link 380 5.17.3 Differential-input ADCs 380 5.17.4 Impedance matching 382

Art of Electronics Third Edition Contents xiii

5.17.5 Differential amplifier selection criteria 383 Review of Chapter 5 388

SIX: Filters 391 6.1 Introduction 391 6.2 Passive filters 391 6.2.1 Frequency response with RC filters 391 6.2.2 Ideal performance with LC filters 393 6.2.3 Several simple examples 393 6.2.4 Enter active filters: an overview 396 6.2.5 Key filter performance criteria 399 6.2.6 Filter types 400 6.2.7 Filter implementation 405 6.3 Active-filter circuits 406 6.3.1 VCVS circuits 407 6.3.2 VCVS filter design using our simplified table 407 6.3.3 State-variable filters 410 6.3.4 Twin-T notch filters 414 6.3.5 Allpass filters 415 6.3.6 Switched-capacitor filters 415 6.3.7 Digital signal processing 418 6.3.8 Filter miscellany 422

(Parte 1 de 9)

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