Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, 2nd Ed - Zucker, Biblarz

Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, 2nd Ed - Zucker, Biblarz

(Parte 1 de 10)

Second Edition

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Zucker, Robert D.

Fundamentalsofgasdynamics.—2nded./RobertD.ZuckerandOscarBiblarz. p. cm.

Includes index. ISBN 0-471-05967-6 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Gas dynamics. I. Biblarz, Oscar. I. Title.

QC168 .Z79 2002 533'.2—dc21 2002028816

Printed in the United States of America. 10987654321

Contents

PREFACE xi TOTHE STUDENT xiii

1 REVIEWOFELEMENTARYPRINCIPLES 1

1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Units and Notation 1 1.3 Some Mathematical Concepts 7 1.4 Thermodynamic Concepts for Control Mass Analysis 10

Review Questions 18 Review Problems 20

2 CONTROLVOLUMEANALYSIS—PARTI 23

2.4 Transformation of a Material Derivative to a Control Volume Approach 27

2.5 Conservation of Mass 32 2.6 Conservation of Energy 35 2.7 Summary 4

Problems 46 Check Test 48

3 CONTROLVOLUMEANALYSIS—PARTII 51 3.1 Introduction 51 vi CONTENTS

3.2 Objectives 51 3.3 Comments on Entropy 52 3.4 Pressure–Energy Equation 54 3.5 The Stagnation Concept 5 3.6 Stagnation Pressure–Energy Equation 59 3.7 Consequences of Constant Density 61 3.8 Momentum Equation 6 3.9 Summary 75

Problems 7 Check Test 81

4 INTRODUCTIONTOCOMPRESSIBLEFLOW 83

Problems 100 Check Test 102

5 VARYING-AREAADIABATICFLOW 105

5.1 Introduction 105 5.2 Objectives 105 5.3 General Fluid—No Losses 106 5.4 Perfect Gases with Losses 1 5.5 The ∗ Reference Concept 115 5.6 Isentropic Table 118 5.7 Nozzle Operation 124 5.8 Nozzle Performance 131 5.9 Diffuser Performance 133 5.10 When γ Is Not Equal to 1.4 135 5.1 (Optional) Beyond the Tables 135 5.12 Summary 138

Problems 139 Check Test 144

CONTENTS vii

6 STANDINGNORMALSHOCKS 147

6.1 Introduction 147 6.2 Objectives 147 6.3 Shock Analysis—General Fluid 148 6.4 Working Equations for Perfect Gases 151 6.5 Normal-Shock Table 154 6.6 Shocks in Nozzles 159 6.7 Supersonic Wind Tunnel Operation 164 6.8 When γ Is Not Equal to 1.4 166 6.9 (Optional) Beyond the Tables 168 6.10 Summary 169

Problems 170 Check Test 174

7 MOVINGANDOBLIQUESHOCKS 175

7.1 Introduction 175 7.2 Objectives 175 7.3 Normal Velocity Superposition: Moving Normal Shocks 176 7.4 Tangential Velocity Superposition: Oblique Shocks 179 7.5 Oblique-Shock Analysis: Perfect Gas 185 7.6 Oblique-Shock Table and Charts 187 7.7 Boundary Condition of Flow Direction 189 7.8 Boundary Condition of Pressure Equilibrium 193 7.9 Conical Shocks 195 7.10 (Optional) Beyond the Tables 198 7.1 Summary 200

Problems 201 Check Test 205

8.1 Introduction 207 8.2 Objectives 207 8.3 Argument for Isentropic Turning Flow 208 8.4 Analysis of Prandtl–Meyer Flow 214 8.5 Prandtl–Meyer Function 218 8.6 Overexpanded and Underexpanded Nozzles 221 8.7 Supersonic Airfoils 226 viii CONTENTS

8.8 When γ Is Not Equal to 1.4 230 8.9 (Optional) Beyond the Tables 231 8.10 Summary 232

Problems 233 Check Test 238

9.1 Introduction 241 9.2 Objectives 241 9.3 Analysis for a General Fluid 242 9.4 Working Equations for Perfect Gases 248 9.5 Reference State and Fanno Table 253 9.6 Applications 257 9.7 Correlation with Shocks 261 9.8 Friction Choking 264 9.9 When γ Is Not Equal to 1.4 267 9.10 (Optional) Beyond the Tables 268 9.1 Summary 269

Problems 270 Check Test 274

10 RAYLEIGHFLOW 277

10.1 Introduction 277 10.2 Objectives 278 10.3 Analysis for a General Fluid 278 10.4 Working Equations for Perfect Gases 288 10.5 Reference State and the Rayleigh Table 293 10.6 Applications 295 10.7 Correlation with Shocks 298 10.8 Thermal Choking due to Heating 302 10.9 When γ Is Not Equal to 1.4 305 10.10 (Optional) Beyond the Tables 306 10.1 Summary 307

Problems 308 Check Test 313

1 REALGASEFFECTS 315

(Parte 1 de 10)

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