Itto energy wood

Itto energy wood

(Parte 1 de 9)

NOVEMBER 2008

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Report of the International Conference of Wood-based Bioenergy Hanover, Germany

REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WOOD-BASED BIOENERGY Hannover, Germany 17–19 May 2007

ITTO Technical Series #31

Energy grows on trees Report of the International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy

Hannover, Germany 17–19 May 2007

ITTO Technical Series #31

The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) is an intergovernmental organization promoting the conservation and sustainable management, use and trade of tropical forest resources. Its 60 members represent about 80% of the world’s tropical forests and 90% of the global tropical timber trade. ITTO develops internationally agreed policy documents to promote sustainable forest management and forest conservation and assists tropical member countries to adapt such policies to local circumstances and to implement them in the field through projects. In addition, ITTO collects, analyzes and disseminates data on the production and trade of tropical timber and funds projects and other actions aimed at developing industries at both community and industrial scales. All projects are funded by voluntary contributions, mostly from consumer member countries. Since it became operational in 1987, ITTO has funded more than 750 projects, pre-projects and activities valued at more than US$300 million. The major donors are the governments of Japan, Switzerland and the USA. ITTO contact details are given on the back cover.

Cover photos Front: Tetra Yanuariadi (ITTO) Back: Eva Mueller

©ITTO 2008

This work is copyright. Except for the ITTO logo, graphical and textual information in this publication may be reproduced in whole or in part provided that it is not sold or put to commercial use and its source is acknowledged. This report has been prepared based on notes made during the convening of the international conference on wood-based bioenergy and on other materials. Due care has been taken to ensure that it is an accurate record of the conference but ITTO is not liable for any errors that it might contain. Although this report was commissioned by ITTO, ITTO does not necessarily endorse or support the findings or recommendations presented herein.

ISBN 4-902045-4-3

The conference, which took place in May 2007, was attended by about 90 people from 3 countries. It reviewed the current status of wood-based bioenergy, explored the use of wood residues, wood waste and dedicated bioenergy tree plantations, and made nine clear recommendations. It focused particularly on the needs of developing countries in the tropics but drew on experiences elsewhere, particularly Europe. It highlighted the rapid development of technologies that is helping wood-based bioenergy become the fuel of choice in an increasing number of places.

On its own, wood-based bioenergy is not the solution to the coming energy crunch or the perils of climate change, but it is part of one. Many developing countries have the potential to develop an efficient and effective bioenergy sector that will help them meet their energy needs while protecting the environment. It is my hope that this conference will be the start of a great deal of activity within our Organization to promote bioenergy as a wood product in the tropics.

Emmanuel Ze Meka Executive Director International Tropical Timber Organization

The world is searching for sources of energy that are carbon neutral, safe and cost-efficient. Wood-based bioenergy offers all these qualities.

Trees grow quickly in the tropics, and wood-based bioenergy already plays a strong role there. But, in general, it does so with low efficiency. Much wood and much energy are wasted. The timber sector has often treated wood off-cuts and sawdust as annoying waste products. This attitude must change. Today’s wood waste is tomorrow’s clean energy.

The wood-based bioenergy sector will do more than find a role for wood waste. New technologies are increasing the efficiency with which trees can be converted into energy. Given the high growth rates and relatively cheap land, dedicated energy tree plantations have plenty of scope in the tropics. The spread of such plantations will have huge implications for the forestry and energy sectors, as well as for the allocation of land.

ITTO and its member countries are keenly interested in the role of bioenergy in the forestry sector. For this reason, the International Tropical Timber Council, ITTO’s governing body, decided to convene, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, an international conference on wood-based bioenergy.

4 INTERNATIONAL TROPICAL TIMBER ORGANIZATION

Foreword3
Introduction7
Welcome address8
Summary of presentations10
Conclusions2
Recommendations24
Conference programme25
List of participants28

TABLE OF CONTENTS Presentation slides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

6 INTERNATIONAL TROPICAL TIMBER ORGANIZATION

People have used wood for energy since they lit the first campfires. In modern times, oil, coal, gas and uranium may have come to dominate the world energy economy, but wood has remained popular, particularly in many rural communities. Now, as climate change looms and oil prices soar, it is enjoying a resurgence. With new technologies and good management, wood-based bioenergy could play a large and perhaps critical role in meeting the world’s future energy needs.

The conference

In May 2007, the International Tropical Timber Organization joined forces with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology to convene an international conference on wood-based bioenergy. It was held in Hannover, Germany, as part of LIGNA 2007, the world’s premier exhibition of wood industry technologies.

The International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy was attended by about 90 people from 3 countries. It reviewed the current status of wood-based bioenergy, explored the use of wood residues, wood waste and dedicated bioenergy tree plantations, drew a wide range of conclusions and made several recommendations. It was particularly concerned with the role of wood-based bioenergy in developing countries and the tropics but drew on experiences elsewhere, particularly Europe. Holding the conference in conjunction with LIGNA 2007 allowed conference participants to see, first-hand, recent technological developments in wood processing and the use of wood-based biomass for energy generation. A study visit to a site near Hannover focused on the optimized use of wood-processing residues in the application of finger-jointing technology for the assembly of off-cuts combined with wood pellet-based heat generation for drying. A second site demonstrated the integrated local use of agricultural biomass (conversion to biogas) and forest-based wood residues as fuel for joint energy generation (electricity and heat) at the village/community level.

The conference produced five key messages, which are shown in the box below.

This report summarizes the presentations made at the conference and the discussions that ensued. It also includes Powerpoint slides presented by speakers and the conclusions drawn and recommendations made by conference participants. It constitutes the proceedings of the conference.

Key messages

• Wood-based bioenergy offers countries, including developing countries in the tropics, an opportunity to improve their energy security

• The wood-based bioenergy sector needs to be developed on the basis of sustainable forest management

• The international community should support the development of efficient and cost-effective wood-based bioenergy in tropical countries, including by facilitating the transfer of appropriate technology and investment

ITTO is an intergovernmental organization comprising 60 member states which promotes the conservation and sustainable management, use and trade of tropical forest resources. ITTO operates under a treaty called the International Tropical Timber Agreement, which was re-negotiated by countries only last year. ITTO’s charter is to promote the sustainable development of the tropical timber sector, including that part of it used for bioenergy.

Bioenergy is already popular in the tropics. In Brazil, my home country, we have been running our cars for decades on ethanol extracted mainly from sugar cane. More basically, wood and charcoal are the dominant forms of domestic energy in many rural economies. But the role of forestry in the organized bioenergy sector has, for the large part, been minimal in the tropics. There has been much waste and many lost opportunities. That makes this conference, which will look at the issue at the global level as well as from the point of view of the tropics, of particular importance; we are breaking new ground here.

That is not to say nothing has happened in the past. Plenty has. Today we will hear about developments in several tropical countries, as well as here in Europe and elsewhere. For its part, ITTO has been promoting the efficient use of wood-processing residues in the tropics for many years. We recognize these residues as a potentially valuable resource for energy production which can make timber industries more economically viable. Through our project program, we have been helping industry to introduce new technologies to capture this potential.

The wood-based bioenergy sector will do more than find a role for wood waste. Specialized energy trees such as hybrid poplar, now under research in the USA

Manoel Sobral Filho Executive Director ITTO

It is a great pleasure to address you today at the opening of this International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy.

The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and its member countries are keenly interested in the role of bioenergy in the forestry sector. It is my hope that this conference will be the start of a great deal of activity within our Organization to promote bioenergy as a wood product in the tropics.

ITTO has organized this conference in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) through my old (well, not so old) friend Wulf Killmann and his team in the Division of Forest Products and Industry. Thank you, Wulf, and I look forward to hearing your presentation in a short while.

I would also like to convey our gratitude to the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology for hosting the conference in this beautiful city of Hannover. I am particularly pleased that we have been able to convene during LIGNA 2007. LIGNA is, of course, an event of global fame and importance and it has always been an ambition of mine to attend it. That I can do so in conjunction with this important conference is a genuine pleasure for me.

I wish also to put on record ITTO’s appreciation of the Governments of Japan, Switzerland, USA and others for raising, through ITTO’s Bali Partnership Fund, the funds needed to make this conference possible.

and other countries, can be introduced to degraded or vacant lands to produce wood cellulosic ethanol, a very high-energy-yielding product compared to corn and sugar-based ethanol. Given high growth rates and relatively cheap land, dedicated energy tree plantations have a great deal of potential in the tropics.

The widespread uptake of bioenergy technologies in the tropics is hindered, however, by many factors. These include a lack of national policies, strategies and institutional arrangements for wood-based bioenergy production, a lack of technologies that can be commercialized easily in the tropics, and a lack of finance for small and medium-sized bioenergy initiatives.

It is therefore clear that the establishment of a viable and sustainable wood-based bioenergy sector in the tropics will need an improved policy environment, a greater availability of bioenergy generation technologies, and significant investment.

I am pleased to note that one of the aims of this conference is to raise the awareness of policy-makers about the economic and technical potential of wood-based bioenergy. I look forward to hearing about experiences in developed countries, particularly in Europe, where the sector is developing rapidly.

ITTO members are also looking forward to learning about the outcomes of this conference. They hope that the Hannover conference will help them to understand the challenges facing the wood-based bioenergy sector and to take advantages of its opportunities.

I expect this conference to do just that. I hope that the presentations we receive, the discussions we have, the networking we do and the information that, ultimately, we disseminate will help stimulate the development of a sustainable wood-based bioenergy sector in the tropics.

(Parte 1 de 9)

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