NASA Systems Engineering Handbook Dec2007

NASA Systems Engineering Handbook Dec2007

(Parte 1 de 8)

NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev1

Systems Engineering Handbook

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NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev1 Systems Engineering Handbook

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Headquarters Washington, D.C. 20546

December 2007

To request print or electronic copies or provide comments, contact the Office of the Chief Engineer via SP6105rev1SEHandbook@nasa.gov

Electronic copies are also available from NASA Center for AeroSpace Information 7115 Standard Drive

Hanover, MD 21076-1320 at http://ntrs.nasa.gov/

NASA Systems Engineering Handbook i

Prefacexiii
Acknowledgmentsxv
1.0 Introduction1
1.1 Purpose1
1.2 Scope and Depth1
2.0 Fundamentals of Systems Engineering3
2.1 The Common Technical Processes and the SE Engine4
2.2 An Overview of the SE Engine by Project Phase6
2.3 Example of Using the SE Engine7
2.3.1 Detailed Example8
2.3.2 Example Premise8
2.3.2.1 Example Phase A System Design Passes8
2.3.2.2 Example Product Realization Passes12
2.3.2.3 Example Use of the SE Engine in Phases B Through D14
2.3.2.4 Example Use of the SE Engine in Phases E and F14
2.4 Distinctions Between Product Verification and Product Validation15
2.5 Cost Aspect of Systems Engineering16
3.0 NASA Program/Project Life Cycle19
3.1 Program Formulation19
3.2 Program Implementation21
3.3 Project Pre-Phase A: Concept Studies2
3.4 Project Phase A: Concept and Technology Development2
3.5 Project Phase B: Preliminary Design and Technology Completion24
3.6 Project Phase C: Final Design and Fabrication25
3.7 Project Phase D: System Assembly, Integration and Test, Launch25
3.8 Project Phase E: Operations and Sustainment28
3.9 Project Phase F: Closeout28
3.10 Funding: The Budget Cycle29
4.0 System Design31
4.1 Stakeholder Expectations Definition3
4.1.1 Process Description3
4.1.1.1 Inputs3
4.1.1.2 Process Activities3
4.1.1.3 Outputs35
4.1.2 Stakeholder Expectations Definition Guidance35
4.1.2.1 Concept of Operations35
4.2 Technical Requirements Definition40
4.2.1 Process Description40
4.2.1.1 Inputs41
4.2.1.2 Process Activities41
4.2.1.3 Outputs41
4.2.2 Technical Requirements Definition Guidance41

Table of Contents 4.2.2.1 Types of Requirements.................................................................................................................. 41 iv NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

4.2.2.2 Human Factors Engineering Requirements45
4.2.2.3 Requirements Decomposition, Allocation, and Validation45
4.2.2.4 Capturing Requirements and the Requirements Database47
4.2.2.5 Technical Standards47
4.3 Logical Decomposition49
4.3.1 Process Description49
4.3.1.1 Inputs49
4.3.1.2 Process Activities49
4.3.1.3 Outputs51
4.3.2 Logical Decomposition Guidance52
4.3.2.1 Product Breakdown Structure52
4.3.2.2 Functional Analysis Techniques52
4.4 Design Solution Definition5
4.4.1 Process Description5
4.4.1.1 Inputs5
4.4.1.2 Process Activities56
4.4.1.3 Outputs61
4.4.2 Design Solution Definition Guidance62
4.4.2.1 Technology Assessment62
4.4.2.2 Integrating Engineering Specialties into the Systems Engineering Process62
5.0 Product Realization71
5.1 Product Implementation73
5.1.1 Process Description73
5.1.1.1 Inputs73
5.1.1.2 Process Activities74
5.1.1.3 Outputs75
5.1.2 Product Implementation Guidance76
5.1.2.1 Buying Off-the-Shelf Products76
5.1.2.2 Heritage76
5.2 Product Integration78
5.2.1 Process Description78
5.2.1.1 Inputs79
5.2.1.2 Process Activities79
5.2.1.3 Outputs79
5.2.2 Product Integration Guidance80
5.2.2.1 Integration Strategy80
5.2.2.2 Relationship to Product Implementation80
5.2.2.3 Product/Interface Integration Support80
5.2.2.4 Product Integration of the Design Solution81
5.2.2.5 Interface Management81
5.2.2.6 Compatibility Analysis81
5.2.2.7 Interface Management Tasks81
5.3 Product Verification83
5.3.1 Process Description83
5.3.1.1 Inputs83
5.3.1.2 Process Activities84
5.3.1.3 Outputs89
5.3.2 Product Verification Guidance89
5.3.2.1 Verification Program89
5.3.2.2 Verification in the Life Cycle89

Table of Contents 5.3.2.3 Verification Procedures ................................................................................................................ 92

Table of Contents

5.3.2.4 Verification Reports93
5.3.2.5 End-to-End System Testing93
5.3.2.6 Modeling and Simulation96
5.3.2.7 Hardware-in-the-Loop96
5.4 Product Validation98
5.4.1 Process Description98
5.4.1.1 Inputs98
5.4.1.2 Process Activities9
5.4.1.3 Outputs104
5.4.2 Product Validation Guidance104
5.4.2.1 Modeling and Simulation104
5.4.2.2 Software104
5.5 Product Transition106
5.5.1 Process Description106
5.5.1.1 Inputs106
5.5.1.2 Process Activities107
5.5.1.3 Outputs109
5.5.2 Product Transition Guidance110
5.5.2.1 Additional Product Transition Input Considerations110
5.5.2.2 After Product Transition to the End User—What Next?110
6.0 Crosscutting Technical Management1
6.1 Technical Planning112
6.1.1 Process Description112
6.1.1.1 Inputs112
6.1.1.2 Process Activities113
6.1.1.3 Outputs122
6.1.2 Technical Planning Guidance122
6.1.2.1 Work Breakdown Structure122
6.1.2.2 Cost Definition and Modeling125
6.1.2.3 Lessons Learned129
6.2 Requirements Management131
6.2.1 Process Description131
6.2.1.1 Inputs131
6.2.1.2 Process Activities132
6.2.1.3 Outputs134
6.2.2 Requirements Management Guidance134
6.2.2.1 Requirements Management Plan134
6.2.2.2 Requirements Management Tools135
6.3 Interface Management136
6.3.1 Process Description136
6.3.1.1 Inputs136
6.3.1.2 Process Activities136
6.3.1.3 Outputs137
6.3.2 Interface Management Guidance137
6.3.2.1 Interface Requirements Document137
6.3.2.2 Interface Control Document or Interface Control Drawing137
6.3.2.3 Interface Definition Document138
6.3.2.4 Interface Control Plan138
6.4 Technical Risk Management139
6.4.1 Process Description140

NASA Systems Engineering Handbook v 6.4.1.1 Inputs ............................................................................................................................................ 140 vi NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

6.4.1.2 Process Activities140
6.4.1.3 Outputs141
6.4.2 Technical Risk Management Guidance141
6.4.2.1 Role of Continuous Risk Management in Technical Risk Management142
6.4.2.2 The Interface Between CRM and Risk-Informed Decision Analysis142
6.4.2.3 Selection and Application of Appropriate Risk Methods143
6.5 Configuration Management151
6.5.1 Process Description151
6.5.1.1 Inputs151
6.5.1.2 Process Activities151
6.5.1.3 Outputs156
6.5.2 CM Guidance156
6.5.2.1 What Is the Impact of Not Doing CM?156
6.5.2.2 When Is It Acceptable to Use Redline Drawings?157
6.6 Technical Data Management158
6.6.1 Process Description158
6.6.1.1 Inputs158
6.6.1.2 Process Activities158
6.6.1.3 Outputs162
6.6.2 Technical Data Management Guidance162
6.6.2.1 Data Security and ITAR162
6.7 Technical Assessment166
6.7.1 Process Description166
6.7.1.1 Inputs166
6.7.1.2 Process Activities166
6.7.1.3 Outputs167
6.7.2 Technical Assessment Guidance168
6.7.2.1 Reviews, Audits, and Key Decision Points168
6.7.2.2 Status Reporting and Assessment190
6.8 Decision Analysis197
6.8.1 Process Description197
6.8.1.1 Inputs198
6.8.1.2 Process Activities199
6.8.1.3 Outputs202
6.8.2 Decision Analysis Guidance203
6.8.2.1 Systems Analysis, Simulation, and Performance203
6.8.2.2 Trade Studies205
6.8.2.3 Cost-Benefit Analysis209
6.8.2.4 Influence Diagrams210
6.8.2.5 Decision Trees210
6.8.2.6 Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis211
6.8.2.7 Utility Analysis212
6.8.2.8 Risk-Informed Decision Analysis Process Example213
7.0 Special Topics217
7.1 Engineering with Contracts217
7.1.1 Introduction, Purpose, and Scope217
7.1.2 Acquisition Strategy217
7.1.2.1 Develop an Acquisition Strategy218
7.1.2.2 Acquisition Life Cycle218
7.1.2.3 NASA Responsibility for Systems Engineering218

Table of Contents 7.1.3 Prior to Contract Award ........................................................................................................................... 219

Table of Contents

7.1.3.1 Acquisition Planning219
7.1.3.2 Develop the Statement of Work223
7.1.3.3 Task Order Contracts225
7.1.3.4 Surveillance Plan225
7.1.3.5 Writing Proposal Instructions and Evaluation Criteria226
7.1.3.6 Selection of COTS Products226
7.1.3.7 Acquisition-Unique Risks227
7.1.4 During Contract Performance227
7.1.4.1 Performing Technical Surveillance227
7.1.4.2 Evaluating Work Products229
7.1.4.3 Issues with Contract-Subcontract Arrangements229
7.1.5 Contract Completion230
7.1.5.1 Acceptance of Final Deliverables230
7.1.5.2 Transition Management231
7.1.5.3 Transition to Operations and Support232
7.1.5.4 Decommissioning and Disposal233
7.1.5.5 Final Evaluation of Contractor Performance233
7.2 Integrated Design Facilities234
7.2.1 Introduction234
7.2.2 CACE Overview and Importance234
7.2.3 CACE Purpose and Benefits235
7.2.4 CACE Staffing235
7.2.5 CACE Process236
7.2.5.1 Planning and Preparation236
7.2.5.2 Activity Execution Phase236
7.2.5.3 Activity Wrap-Up237
7.2.6 CACE Engineering Tools and Techniques237
7.2.7 CACE Facility, Information Infrastructure, and Staffing238
7.2.7.1 Facility238
7.2.7.2 Information Infrastructure238
7.2.7.3 Facility Support Staff Responsibilities239
7.2.8 CACE Products239
7.2.9 CACE Best Practices239
7.2.9.1 People240
7.2.9.2 Process and Tools240
7.2.9.3 Facility240
7.3 Selecting Engineering Design Tools242
7.3.1 Program and Project Considerations242
7.3.2 Policy and Processes242
7.3.3 Collaboration242
7.3.4 Design Standards243
7.3.5 Existing IT Architecture243
7.3.6 Tool Interfaces243
7.3.7 Interoperability and Data Formats243
7.3.8 Backward Compatibility244
7.3.9 Platform244
7.3.10 Tool Configuration Control244
7.3.1 Security/Access Control244
7.3.12 Training244
7.3.13 Licenses244
7.3.14 Stability of Vendor and Customer Support244

NASA Systems Engineering Handbook vii 7.4 Human Factors Engineering ................................................................................................................................ 246 viii NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

7.4.1 Basic HF Model247
7.4.2 HF Analysis and Evaluation Techniques247
7.5 Environmental, Nuclear Safety, Planetary Protection, and Asset Protection Policy Compliance256
7.5.1 NEPA and EO 12114256
7.5.1.1 National Environmental Policy Act256
7.5.1.2 EO 12114 Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions257
7.5.2 PD/NSC-25257
7.5.3 Planetary Protection258
7.5.4 Space Asset Protection260
7.5.4.1 Protection Policy260
7.5.4.2 Goal260
7.5.4.3 Scoping260
7.5.4.4 Protection Planning260
7.6 Use of Metric System261
Appendix A: Acronyms263
Appendix B: Glossary266
Appendix C: How to Write a Good Requirement279
Appendix D: Requirements Verification Matrix282
Appendix E: Creating the Validation Plan (Including Validation Requirements Matrix)284
Appendix F: Functional, Timing, and State Analysis285
Appendix G: Technology Assessment/Insertion293
Appendix H: Integration Plan Outline299
Appendix I: Verification and Validation Plan Sample Outline301
Appendix J: SEMP Content Outline303
Appendix K: Plans308
Appendix L: Interface Requirements Document Outline309
Appendix M: CM Plan Outline311
Appendix N: Guidance on Technical Peer Reviews/Inspections312
Appendix O: Tradeoff Examples316
Appendix P: SOW Review Checklist317
Appendix Q: Project Protection Plan Outline321
References323
Bibliography327

Table of Contents Index ............................................................................................................................................................... 332

Table of Contents

NASA Systems Engineering Handbook ix

2.0-1 SE in context of overall project management4
2.1-1 The systems engineering engine5
flight and ground systems accompanying this handbook6
2.3-1 SE engine tracking icon8
2.3-2 Product hierarchy, tier 1: first pass through the SE engine9
2.3-3 Product hierarchy, tier 2: external tank10
2.3-4 Product hierarchy, tier 2: orbiter10
2.3-5 Product hierarchy, tier 3: avionics system1
2.3-6 Product hierarchy: complete pass through system design processes side of the SE engine1
2.3-7 Model of typical activities during operational phase (Phase E) of a product14
2.3-8 New products or upgrades reentering the SE engine15
2.5-1 The enveloping surface of nondominated designs16
2.5-2 Estimates of outcomes to be obtained from several design concepts including uncertainty17
3.0-1 NASA program life cycle20
3.0-2 NASA project life cycle20
3.10-1 Typical NASA budget cycle29
4.0-1 Interrelationships among the system design processes31
4.1-1 Stakeholder Expectations Definition Process3
4.1-2 Product flow for stakeholder expectations34
4.1-3 Typical ConOps development for a science mission36
4.1-4 Example of an associated end-to-end operational architecture36
4.1-5a Example of a lunar sortie timeline developed early in the life cycle37
4.1-5b Example of a lunar sortie DRM early in the life cycle37
4.1-6 Example of a more detailed, integrated timeline later in the life cycle for a science mission38
4.2-1 Technical Requirements Definition Process40
4.2-2 Characteristics of functional, operational, reliability, safety, and specialty requirements43
4.2-3 The flowdown of requirements46
4.2-4 Allocation and flowdown of science pointing requirements47
4.3-1 Logical Decomposition Process49
4.3-2 Example of a PBS52
4.3-3 Example of a functional flow block diagram53
4.3-4 Example of an N2 diagram54
4.4-1 Design Solution Definition Process5
4.4-2 The doctrine of successive refinement56
4.4-3 A quantitative objective function, dependent on life-cycle cost and all aspects of effectiveness58
5.0-1 Product realization71
5.1-1 Product Implementation Process73
5.2-1 Product Integration Process78
5.3-1 Product Verification Process84
5.3-2 Bottom-up realization process90
5.3-3 Example of end-to-end data flow for a scientific satellite mission94
5.4-1 Product Validation Process9
5.5-1 Product Transition Process106
6.1-1 Technical Planning Process112
6.1-2 Activity-on-arrow and precedence diagrams for network schedules116
6.1-3 Gantt chart118
6.1-4 Relationship between a system, a PBS, and a WBS123
6.1-5 Examples of WBS development errors125
6.2-1 Requirements Management Process131

Figures 2.2-1 A miniaturized conceptualization of the poster-size NASA project life-cycle process flow for 6.3-1 Interface Management Process .......................................................................................................................... 136 x NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

6.4-1 Technical Risk Management Process140
6.4-2 Scenario-based modeling of hazards141
6.4-3 Risk as a set of triplets141
6.4-4 Continuous risk management142
6.4-5 The interface between CRM and risk-informed decision analysis143
6.4-6 Risk analysis of decision alternatives144
6.4-7 Risk matrix145
6.4-8 Example of a fault tree146
6.4-9 Deliberation147
6.4-10 Performance monitoring and control of deviations149
6.4-1 Margin management method150
6.5-1 CM Process151
6.5-2 Five elements of configuration management152
6.5-3 Evolution of technical baseline153
6.5-4 Typical change control process155
6.6-1 Technical Data Management Process158
6.7-1 Technical Assessment Process166
6.7-2 Planning and status reportingfeedback loop167
6.7-3 Cost and schedule variances190
6.7-4 Relationships of MOEs, MOPs,and TPMs192
6.7-5 Use of the planned profile method for the weight TPM with rebaseline in Chandra Project194
6.7-6 Use of the margin management method for the mass TPM in Sojourner194
6.8-1 Decision Analysis Process198
6.8-2 Example of a decision matrix201
6.8-3 Systems analysis across the life cycle203
6.8-4 Simulation model analysis techniques204
6.8-5 Trade study process205
6.8-6 Influence diagrams210
6.8-7 Decision tree211
6.8-8 Utility function for a “volume” performance measure213
6.8-9 Risk-informed Decision Analysis Process214
6.8-10 Example of an objectives hierarchy215
7.1-1 Acquisition life cycle218
7.1-2 Contract requirements development process223
7.2-1 CACE people/process/tools/facility paradigm234
7.4-1 Human factors interaction model247
7.4-2 HF engineering process and its links to the NASA program/project life cycle248
F-1 FFBD flowdown286
F-2 FFBD: example 1287
F-3 FFBD showing additional control constructs: example 2287
F-4 Enhanced FFBD: example 3288
F-5 Requirements allocation sheet289
F-6 N2 diagram for orbital equipment289
F-7 Timing diagram example290
F-8 Slew command status state diagram291
G-1 PBS example294
G-2 Technology assessment process295
G-3 Architectural studies and technology development296
G-4 Technology readiness levels296
G-5 The TMA thought process297
G-6 TRL assessment matrix298

Table of Contents N-1 The peer review/inspection process .................................................................................................................... 312

Table of Contents

N-2 Peer reviews/inspections quick reference guide315

NASA Systems Engineering Handbook xi

2.3-1 Project Life-Cycle Phases7
4.1-1 Typical Operational Phases for a NASA Mission39
4.2-1 Benefits of Well-Written Requirements42
4.2-2 Requirements Metadata48
4.4-1 ILS Technical Disciplines6
6.6-1 Technical Data Tasks163
6.7-1 Program Technical Reviews170
6.7-2 P/SRR Entrance and Success Criteria171
6.7-3 P/SDR Entrance and Success Criteria172
6.7-4 MCR Entrance and Success Criteria173
6.7-5 SRR Entrance and Success Criteria174
6.7-6 MDR Entrance and Success Criteria175
6.7-7 SDR Entrance and Success Criteria176
6.7-8 PDR Entrance and Success Criteria177
6.7-9 CDR Entrance and Success Criteria178
6.7-10 PRR Entrance and Success Criteria179
6.7-1 SIR Entrance and Success Criteria180
6.7-12 TRR Entrance and Success Criteria181
6.7-13 SAR Entrance and Success Criteria182
6.7-14 ORR Entrance and Success Criteria183
6.7-15 FRR Entrance and Success Criteria184
6.7-16 PLAR Entrance and Success Criteria185
6.7-17 CERR Entrance and Success Criteria186
6.7-18 PFAR Entrance and Success Criteria186
6.7-19 DR Entrance and Success Criteria187
6.7-20 Functional and Physical Configuration Audits189
6.7-21 Systems Engineering Process Metrics196
6.8-1 Consequence Table199
6.8-2 Typical Information to Capture in a Decision Report202
7.1-1 Applying the Technical Processes on Contract220
7.1-2 Steps in the Requirements Development Process224
7.1-3 Proposal Evaluation Criteria227
7.1-4 Risks in Acquisition228
7.1-5 Typical Work Product Documents230
7.1-6 Contract-Subcontract Issues231
7.4-1 Human and Organizational Analysis Techniques249
7.5-1 Planetary Protection Mission Categories259
7.5-2 Summarized Planetary Protection Requirements259
D-1 Requirements Verification Matrix283
E-1 Validation Requirements Matrix284
G-1 Products Provided by the TA as a Function of Program/Project Phase294
H-1 Integration Plan Contents300
M-1 CM Plan Outline311
O-1 Typical Tradeoffs for Space Systems316
O-2 Typical Tradeoffs in the Acquisition Process316

Tables O-3 Typical Tradeoffs Throughout the Project Life Cycle .......................................................................................316 xii NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

Table of Contents

System Cost, Effectiveness, and Cost-Effectiveness16
The Systems Engineer’s Dilemma17
Program Formulation21
Program Implementation21
Pre-Phase A: Concept Studies2
Phase A: Concept and Technology Development23
Phase B: Preliminary Design and Technology Completion24
Phase C: Final Design and Fabrication26
Phase D: System Assembly, Integration and Test, Launch27
Phase E: Operations and Sustainment28
Phase F: Closeout28
System Design Keys32
Example of Functional and Performance Requirements43
Rationale48
DOD Architecture Framework51
Prototypes67
Product Realization Keys72
Differences Between Verification and Validation Testing83
Types of Testing85
Types of Verification86
Differences Between Verification and Validation Testing98
Types of Validation100
Examples of Enabling Products and Support Resources for Preparing to Conduct Validation102
Model Verification and Validation104
Crosscutting Technical Management Keys1
Gantt Chart Features117
WBS Hierarchies for Systems126
Definitions132
Typical Interface Management Checklist138
Key Concepts in Technical Risk Management139
Example Sources of Risk145
Limitations of Risk Matrices145
Types of Configuration Change Management Changes154
Warning Signs/Red Flags (How Do You Know When You’re in Trouble?)156
Redlines Were identified as One of the Major Causes of the NOAA N-Prime Mishap157
Inappropriate Uses of Technical Data160
Data Collection Checklist162
Termination Review169
Analyzing the Estimate at Completion191
Examples of Technical Performance Measures193
An Example of a Trade Tree for a Mars Rover207
Trade Study Reports208
Solicitations219
Source Evaluation Board226

Boxes Context Diagrams .......................................................................................................................................................... 292

NASA Systems Engineering Handbook xiii

Preface

Since the writing of NASA/SP-6105 in 1995, systems engineering at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), within national and international standard bodies, and as a discipline has undergone rapid evolution. Changes include implementing standards in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000, the use of Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute’s Capability Maturity Model® Integration (CMMI®) to improve development and delivery of products, and the impacts of mission failures. Lessons learned on systems engineering were documented in reports such as those by the NASA Integrated Action Team (NIAT), the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), and the follow-on Diaz Report. Out of these efforts came the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer (OCE) initiative to improve the overall Agency systems engineering infrastructure and capability for the efficient and effective engineering of NASA systems, to produce quality products, and to achieve mission success. In addition, Agency policy and requirements for systems engineering have been established. This handbook update is a part of the OCE-sponsored Agencywide systems engineering initiative.

In 1995, SP-6105 was initially published to bring the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and the NASA environment. This revision of SP-6105 maintains that original philosophy while updating the Agency’s systems engineering body of knowledge, providing guidance for insight into current best Agency practices, and aligning the handbook with the new Agency systems engineering policy.

The update of this handbook was twofold: a top-down compatibility with higher level Agency policy and a bottom-up infusion of guidance from the NASA practitioners in the field. The approach provided the opportunity to obtain best practices from across NASA and bridge the information to the established NASA systems engineering process. The attempt is to communicate principles of good practice as well as alternative approaches rather than specify a particular way to accomplish a task. The result embodied in this handbook is a top-level implementation approach on the practice of systems engineering unique to NASA. The material for updating this handbook was drawn from many different sources, including NASA procedural requirements, field center systems engineering handbooks and processes, as well as non-NASA systems engineering textbooks and guides.

This handbook consists of six core chapters: (1) systems engineering fundamentals discussion, (2) the NASA program/project life cycles, (3) systems engineering processes to get from a concept to a design, (4) systems engineering processes to get from a design to a final product, (5) crosscutting management processes in systems engineering, and (6) special topics relative to systems engineering. These core chapters are supplemented by appendices that provide outlines, examples, and further information to illustrate topics in the core chapters. The handbook makes extensive use of boxes and figures to define, refine, illustrate, and extend concepts in the core chapters without diverting the reader from the main information.

The handbook provides top-level guidelines for good systems engineering practices; it is not intended in any way to be a directive.

NASA Systems Engineering Handbook xv

Acknowledgments

Primary points of contact: Stephen J. Kapurch, Office of the Chief Engineer, NASA Headquarters, and Neil E. Rainwater, Marshall Space Flight Center.

The following individuals are recognized as contributing practitioners to the content of this handbook revision:

■ Core Team Member (or Representative) from Center, Directorate, or Office

◆ Integration Team Member • Subject Matter Expert Team Champion Subject Matter Expert

Arden Acord, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Danette Allen, NASA/Langley Research Center Deborah Amato, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center • Jim Andary, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center ◆ Tim Beard, NASA/Ames Research Center Jim Bilbro, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Mike Blythe, NASA/Headquarters ■ Linda Bromley, NASA/Johnson Space Center ◆• ■ Dave Brown, Defense Acquisition University John Brunson, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center • Joe Burt, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Glenn Campbell, NASA/Headquarters Joyce Carpenter, NASA/Johnson Space Center • Keith Chamberlin, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Peggy Chun, NASA/NASA Engineering and Safety Center ◆• ■

Cindy Coker, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Nita Congress, Graphic Designer ◆ Catharine Conley, NASA/Headquarters Shelley Delay, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Rebecca Deschamp, NASA/Stennis Space Center Homayoon Dezfuli, NASA/Headquarters • Olga Dominguez, NASA/Headquarters Rajiv Doreswamy, NASA/Headquarters ■ Larry Dyer, NASA/Johnson Space Center Nelson Eng, NASA/Johnson Space Center Patricia Eng, NASA/Headquarters

Amy Epps, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Chester Everline, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Karen Fashimpaur, Arctic Slope Regional Corporation ◆ Orlando Figueroa, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center ■ Stanley Fishkind, NASA/Headquarters ■ Brad Flick, NASA/Dryden Flight Research Center ■ Marton Forkosh, NASA/Glenn Research Center ■ Dan Freund, NASA/Johnson Space Center Greg Galbreath, NASA/Johnson Space Center Louie Galland, NASA/Langley Research Center Yuri Gawdiak, NASA/Headquarters ■• Theresa Gibson, NASA/Glenn Research Center Ronnie Gillian, NASA/Langley Research Center Julius Giriunas, NASA/Glenn Research Center Ed Gollop, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Lee Graham, NASA/Johnson Space Center Larry Green, NASA/Langley Research Center Owen Greulich, NASA/Headquarters ■ Ben Hanel, NASA/Ames Research Center Gena Henderson, NASA/Kennedy Space Center • Amy Hemken, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

Bob Hennessy, NASA/NASA Engineering and Safety Center

Ellen Herring, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center • Renee Hugger, NASA/Johnson Space Center Brian Hughitt, NASA/Headquarters Eric Isaac, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center ■ Tom Jacks, NASA/Stennis Space Center

Ken Johnson, NASA/NASA Engineering and Safety Center

Ross Jones, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory ■ John Juhasz, NASA/Johnson Space Center Stephen Kapurch, NASA/Headquarters ■◆• Jason Kastner, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Kristen Kehrer, NASA/Kennedy Space Center John Kelly, NASA/Headquarters Kriss Kennedy, NASA/Johnson Space Center xvi NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

Acknowledgments

Steven Kennedy, NASA/Kennedy Space Center Tracey Kickbusch, NASA/Kennedy Space Center ■ Casey Kirchner, NASA/Stennis Space Center Kenneth Kumor, NASA/Headquarters Janne Lady, SAITECH/CSC Jerry Lake, Systems Management international Kenneth W. Ledbetter, NASA/Headquarters ■ Steve Leete, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center William Lincoln, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Dave Littman, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center John Lucero, NASA/Glenn Research Center Paul Luz, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Todd MacLeod, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Roger Mathews, NASA/Kennedy Space Center • Bryon Maynard, NASA/Stennis Space Center Patrick McDuffee, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Mark McElyea, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center William McGovern, Defense Acquisition University ◆

Colleen McGraw, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center ◆•

Melissa McGuire, NASA/Glenn Research Center Don Mendoza, NASA/Ames Research Center Leila Meshkat, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Elizabeth Messer, NASA/Stennis Space Center • Chuck Miller, NASA/Headquarters Scott Mimbs, NASA/Kennedy Space Center Steve Newton, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Tri Nguyen, NASA/Johnson Space Center Chuck Niles, NASA/Langley Research Center •

Cynthia Null, NASA/NASA Engineering and Safety Center

John Olson, NASA/Headquarters Tim Olson, QIC, Inc. Sam Padgett, NASA/Johnson Space Center Christine Powell, NASA/Stennis Space Center ◆• ■ Steve Prahst, NASA/Glenn Research Center Pete Prassinos, NASA/Headquarters ■ Mark Prill, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Neil Rainwater, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center ■ ◆ Ron Ray, NASA/Dryden Flight Research Center Gary Rawitscher, NASA/Headquarters Joshua Reinert, ISL Inc. Norman Rioux, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Steve Robbins, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center • Dennis Rohn, NASA/Glenn Research Center ◆ Jim Rose, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Arnie Ruskin,* NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory • Harry Ryan, NASA/Stennis Space Center George Salazar, NASA/Johnson Space Center Nina Scheller, NASA/Ames Research Center ■ Pat Schuler, NASA/Langley Research Center • Randy Seftas, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Joey Shelton, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center • Robert Shishko, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory ◆ Burton Sigal, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Sandra Smalley, NASA/Headquarters Richard Smith, NASA/Kennedy Space Center John Snoderly, Defense Acquisition University Richard Sorge, NASA/Glenn Research Center Michael Stamatelatos, NASA/Headquarters ■ Tom Sutliff, NASA/Glenn Research Center • Todd Tofil, NASA/Glenn Research Center John Tinsley, NASA/Headquarters Rob Traister, Graphic Designer ◆ Clayton Turner, NASA/Langley Research Center ■ Paul VanDamme, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Karen Vaner, NASA/Stennis Space Center Lynn Vernon, NASA/Johnson Space Center Linda Voss, Technical Writer ◆ Britt Walters, NASA/Johnson Space Center ■ Tommy Watts, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Richard Weinstein, NASA/Headquarters Katie Weiss, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory • Martha Wetherholt, NASA/Headquarters Becky Wheeler, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Cathy White, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Reed Wilcox, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Barbara Woolford, NASA/Johnson Space Center • Felicia Wright, NASA/Langley Research Center Robert Youngblood, ISL Inc. Tom Zang, NASA/Langley Research Center

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