Fletcher - History of architecture on the comparative method

Fletcher - History of architecture on the comparative method

(Parte 1 de 5)

" The spirit of antiquity, enshrinedIn sumptuous buildings, vocal in sweet song,In picture speaking with heroic tongue,And with devout solemnities entwinedStrikes to the seat of grace within the mind :Hence forms that glide with swan-like ease along,Hence motions, even amid the vulgar throng,To an harmonious decency confined,As if the streets were consecrated ground,The city one vast temple, dedicateTo mutual respect in thought and deed."WORDSWORTH, " The spirit of antiquity, enshrinedIn sumptuous buildings, vocal in sweet song,In picture speaking with heroic tongue,And with devout solemnities entwinedStrikes to the seat of grace within the mind :Hence forms that glide with swan-like ease along,Hence motions, even amid the vulgar throng,To an harmonious decency confined,As if the streets were consecrated ground,The city one vast temple, dedicateTo mutual respect in thought and deed."WORDSWORTH,

STYLES <? AGE OF GREEK* BYZANTINE, ROMANESQUE , GOTO1C * RENAISSANCE REVIVALS &

THE TREE OF ARCHITECTURE,Showing the main growth or evolution of the various styles.The Tree must be taken as suggestive only, for minor influences cannot beindicated in a diagram of this kind.

t- rf__. Q)j.lK s s

AHISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREON THE COMPARATIVE METHOD 'FOR THE STUDENT, CRAFTSMAN, AND AMATEURBYPROFESSOR BANISTER FLETCHER, F.R.I.B.A.(Formerly Professor ofArchitecture in King's College, London)ANDBANISTER F. FLETCHER, F.R.I.B.A., Architect(University Extension Lecturer on Architecture ; Formerly Lecturer on Architecture,King's College, London ; R.I.B.A. ' Godwin ' Bursar, 1893, ' Tite' Prize Medallist,1895, Essay Medallist, 1896, Architectural Association Medallistfor Design,1888, Lecturer at the Architectural Association ; Hon. Corr.Member ofthe American Institute ofArchitects;Author of " Andrea Palladia, his Life and Works," etc.]FIFTH EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGEDBYBANISTER F. FLETCHERWITH ABOUT TWO THOUSAND ILLUSTRATIONSLONDONB. T. BATSFORD, 94, HIGH HOLBORNMCMV. AHISTORY OF ARCHITECTUREON THE COMPARATIVE METHOD 'FOR THE STUDENT, CRAFTSMAN, AND AMATEURBYPROFESSOR BANISTER FLETCHER, F.R.I.B.A.(Formerly Professor ofArchitecture in King's College, London)ANDBANISTER F. FLETCHER, F.R.I.B.A., Architect(University Extension Lecturer on Architecture ; Formerly Lecturer on Architecture,King's College, London ; R.I.B.A. ' Godwin ' Bursar, 1893, ' Tite' Prize Medallist,1895, Essay Medallist, 1896, Architectural Association Medallistfor Design,1888, Lecturer at the Architectural Association ; Hon. Corr.Member ofthe American Institute ofArchitects;Author of " Andrea Palladia, his Life and Works," etc.]FIFTH EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGEDBYBANISTER F. FLETCHERWITH ABOUT TWO THOUSAND ILLUSTRATIONSLONDONB. T. BATSFORD, 94, HIGH HOLBORNMCMV.

BRADBURY, AGNEW, & CO. L1X, PRINTERS,LONDON AND TONBRIDGE. BRADBURY, AGNEW, & CO. L1X, PRINTERS,LONDON AND TONBRIDGE.

PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION.IN the Preface to the Fourth Edition I explained the manyimportant additions which had been made since the originalpublication of this book in 1896, and I desire to point out that inthe present Edition the nature of the revision has been on an evenmore extensive scale, amounting to the rewriting of the greaterportion of the work. While much new matter has been intro-duced, the importance of a thorough revision of that alreadyexisting has not been overlooked, the utmost care having beentaken to verify all important statements and dates, and to amplifysuch descriptions where this appeared desirable. These remarksas to the text, apply equally to the illustrations, which have beenincreased by the addition of some 700, bringing their total up toabout 2,0. Many of the subjects shown in the previouseditions have been re-drawn and corrected in the light of themost recent discoveries.The sale of four large editions in the space of a few yearsaffords strong evidence that the book has been of service not onlyto the strictly professional student and those connected with designin its application to the minor arts and crafts, but also to thatlarger body of amateurs to whom Architectural History is yearby year becoming a matter of lively interest. It is gratifying toknow that it has been adopted as a text-book in Art Schoolsand in the leading Colleges and Technical Institutions of GreatBritain, the United States of America, and Australia, for it is uponthese centres we must depend for the formation of a cultivatedtaste, and the future growth of interest in the Arts.Many causes have combined in helping towards the properappreciation and enthusiasm for architecture and the arts ofdesign, among which the greatly increased facilities for travel,the conducted educational tours now so popular, and the generalinterest in photography are undoubtedly important factors.The History of Architecture has, however, until recent years PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION.IN the Preface to the Fourth Edition I explained the manyimportant additions which had been made since the originalpublication of this book in 1896, and I desire to point out that inthe present Edition the nature of the revision has been on an evenmore extensive scale, amounting to the rewriting of the greaterportion of the work. While much new matter has been intro-duced, the importance of a thorough revision of that alreadyexisting has not been overlooked, the utmost care having beentaken to verify all important statements and dates, and to amplifysuch descriptions where this appeared desirable. These remarksas to the text, apply equally to the illustrations, which have beenincreased by the addition of some 700, bringing their total up toabout 2,0. Many of the subjects shown in the previouseditions have been re-drawn and corrected in the light of themost recent discoveries.The sale of four large editions in the space of a few yearsaffords strong evidence that the book has been of service not onlyto the strictly professional student and those connected with designin its application to the minor arts and crafts, but also to thatlarger body of amateurs to whom Architectural History is yearby year becoming a matter of lively interest. It is gratifying toknow that it has been adopted as a text-book in Art Schoolsand in the leading Colleges and Technical Institutions of GreatBritain, the United States of America, and Australia, for it is uponthese centres we must depend for the formation of a cultivatedtaste, and the future growth of interest in the Arts.Many causes have combined in helping towards the properappreciation and enthusiasm for architecture and the arts ofdesign, among which the greatly increased facilities for travel,the conducted educational tours now so popular, and the generalinterest in photography are undoubtedly important factors.The History of Architecture has, however, until recent years viii PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION.been a sealed book to many who have wandered amongst themost beautiful creations of the building art without being able tounderstand their meaning or appreciate their quality a Greciantemple, a Roman amphitheatre, or a Gothic cathedral recalling tothem none of the evidences which render each a reflection of itsown period in history, and which give to each ancient buildinga special attraction, besides adding greatty to the interest andenjoyment of its examination.Architecture has been described very truly as the printing pressof all ages, and it appears probable that in these days of enlighten-ment the study of Architectural History will soon take its properplace as part of a liberal education. It is surely remarkable thatit should for so long have been neglected, for is it not the art withwhich everyone is brought into daily contact, which shelters usfrom the elements and gives us " Home," which enshrines andilluminates the most sacred of our thoughts, which is the outcomeof conditions intimately bound up with the history of the humanrace, and, finally, is it not the mother of all other arts, sincefrom it sprang sculpture, painting, and the decorative craftsof the succeeding ages ?The time spent in the study of the architecture of the past will,therefore, never be regretted, for every ruin tells of the historyof other days, and enables the character and conditions of menof past periods to be conjured up, thus opening wide to allstudents and lovers of old buildings the enjoyment of contem-plating forms which will then have for them a meaning and acharm.I am indebted to my brother, Mr. H. Phillips Fletcher,F.R.I.B.A., for helpful criticism in this edition, and to my pub-lisher for his care in the revision of the bibliography and in thegeneral production of the book.It should, perhaps, be mentioned that, owing to the death ofProfessor Banister Fletcher, the revision of the fourth and of thepresent edition has been carried out by me.BANISTER F. FLETCHER.29, NEW BRIDGE STREET,LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.G.New Year's Day, 1905. viii PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION.been a sealed book to many who have wandered amongst themost beautiful creations of the building art without being able tounderstand their meaning or appreciate their quality a Greciantemple, a Roman amphitheatre, or a Gothic cathedral recalling tothem none of the evidences which render each a reflection of itsown period in history, and which give to each ancient buildinga special attraction, besides adding greatty to the interest andenjoyment of its examination.Architecture has been described very truly as the printing pressof all ages, and it appears probable that in these days of enlighten-ment the study of Architectural History will soon take its properplace as part of a liberal education. It is surely remarkable thatit should for so long have been neglected, for is it not the art withwhich everyone is brought into daily contact, which shelters usfrom the elements and gives us " Home," which enshrines andilluminates the most sacred of our thoughts, which is the outcomeof conditions intimately bound up with the history of the humanrace, and, finally, is it not the mother of all other arts, sincefrom it sprang sculpture, painting, and the decorative craftsof the succeeding ages ?The time spent in the study of the architecture of the past will,therefore, never be regretted, for every ruin tells of the historyof other days, and enables the character and conditions of menof past periods to be conjured up, thus opening wide to allstudents and lovers of old buildings the enjoyment of contem-plating forms which will then have for them a meaning and acharm.I am indebted to my brother, Mr. H. Phillips Fletcher,F.R.I.B.A., for helpful criticism in this edition, and to my pub-lisher for his care in the revision of the bibliography and in thegeneral production of the book.It should, perhaps, be mentioned that, owing to the death ofProfessor Banister Fletcher, the revision of the fourth and of thepresent edition has been carried out by me.BANISTER F. FLETCHER.29, NEW BRIDGE STREET,LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.G.New Year's Day, 1905.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.THE Authors' aim in writing this book has been, not only to givein clear and brief form the characteristic features of the archi-tecture of each people and country, but also to consider thoseinfluences which have contributed to the formation of eachspecial style.They are of opinion that in published works upon the subject,Architecture has often been too much isolated from its surround-ings, and that the main points of the physical geography, socialprogress, and historical development of each country require tobe understood by those who would study and comprehend itsparticular style.In order to bring out the effects of these influences, and alsothe qualities of the styles themselves, a comparative and analyticalmethod has been adopted, so that by the contrast of qualities thedifferences may be more easily grasped. For instance, the specialcharacter of Gothic architecture becomes manifest when put incomparison with the Classic and Renaissance styles ; and, further-more, the shades of difference in the local or national phases ofeach, can also be equally drawn out by a similar comparativetreatment.The styles themselves are then analysed and the parts con-trasted ; the analysis being carried out on the basis of the essentialparts which every building possesses. As this system pervadesthe whole book, either the influences, character, examples, orcomparative features of each style, can be contrasted with thosein any other style. This then is the scheme of the book, whichhas been divided into five sections in each period, as follows :i. INFLUENCES.i. Geographical,i. Geological,ii. Climate. PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.THE Authors' aim in writing this book has been, not only to givein clear and brief form the characteristic features of the archi-tecture of each people and country, but also to consider thoseinfluences which have contributed to the formation of eachspecial style.They are of opinion that in published works upon the subject,Architecture has often been too much isolated from its surround-ings, and that the main points of the physical geography, socialprogress, and historical development of each country require tobe understood by those who would study and comprehend itsparticular style.In order to bring out the effects of these influences, and alsothe qualities of the styles themselves, a comparative and analyticalmethod has been adopted, so that by the contrast of qualities thedifferences may be more easily grasped. For instance, the specialcharacter of Gothic architecture becomes manifest when put incomparison with the Classic and Renaissance styles ; and, further-more, the shades of difference in the local or national phases ofeach, can also be equally drawn out by a similar comparativetreatment.The styles themselves are then analysed and the parts con-trasted ; the analysis being carried out on the basis of the essentialparts which every building possesses. As this system pervadesthe whole book, either the influences, character, examples, orcomparative features of each style, can be contrasted with thosein any other style. This then is the scheme of the book, whichhas been divided into five sections in each period, as follows :i. INFLUENCES.i. Geographical,i. Geological,ii. Climate.

X PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.1. INFLUENCES continued.iv. Religion.v. Social and Political,vi. Historical.2. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.3. EXAMPLES OF BUILDINGS.4. COMPARATIVE.A. Plan, or general distribution of the building.B. Walls, their construction and treatment.C. Openings, their character and shape.D. Roofs, their treatment and development.E. Columns, their position, structure, and decoration.F. Mouldings, their form and decoration.G. Ornament, as applied in general to any building.5. REFERENCE BOOKS.SECTION i is divided into the six leading influences that may beexpected to shape the architecture of any country or people,the first three being structural, the next two the civilizingforces, and the last containing those external historical eventswhich may alter or vary the foregoing.SECTION 2 describes the character of the architecture, that is, itsspecial quality, and the general effect produced by the buildingsas a whole.SECTION 3 contains the examples, i.e. the chief buildings in eachstyle, briefly named and described, being the corpus, which thepreceding influences affect and from which the subsequentcomparative analysis is deduced.SECTION 4 is this comparative analysis, in which every style ofarchitecture is regarded as the solution of certain fundamentalproblems, i.e. each building must have all or most of the partsA to G, and consequently there is both interest and instructionto be gained in learning and comparing how each style hassolved these points of the problem.SECTION 5 gives authorities and more especially directs the readerwho wishes to pursue the study of any style in further detail.In treating of the buildings themselves under Section 3 theauthors have endeavoured to avoid long descriptions, which are X PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.1. INFLUENCES continued.iv. Religion.v. Social and Political,vi. Historical.2. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.3. EXAMPLES OF BUILDINGS.4. COMPARATIVE.A. Plan, or general distribution of the building.B. Walls, their construction and treatment.C. Openings, their character and shape.D. Roofs, their treatment and development.E. Columns, their position, structure, and decoration.F. Mouldings, their form and decoration.G. Ornament, as applied in general to any building.5. REFERENCE BOOKS.SECTION i is divided into the six leading influences that may beexpected to shape the architecture of any country or people,the first three being structural, the next two the civilizingforces, and the last containing those external historical eventswhich may alter or vary the foregoing.SECTION 2 describes the character of the architecture, that is, itsspecial quality, and the general effect produced by the buildingsas a whole.SECTION 3 contains the examples, i.e. the chief buildings in eachstyle, briefly named and described, being the corpus, which thepreceding influences affect and from which the subsequentcomparative analysis is deduced.SECTION 4 is this comparative analysis, in which every style ofarchitecture is regarded as the solution of certain fundamentalproblems, i.e. each building must have all or most of the partsA to G, and consequently there is both interest and instructionto be gained in learning and comparing how each style hassolved these points of the problem.SECTION 5 gives authorities and more especially directs the readerwho wishes to pursue the study of any style in further detail.In treating of the buildings themselves under Section 3 theauthors have endeavoured to avoid long descriptions, which are

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. XInecessarily technical and intolerably dry, and difficult to follow,even by those who have had the technical training, and haveeither the building or complete drawings of it before them. Theyhave therefore provided the largest possible number of illustrations,and have confined the text to brief, but it is hoped vivid, notes ofthe special qualities and characteristics of the building referred to.It is hoped that the book will appeal not only to students whorequire an outline of architectural history as part of their artisticand professional education, but also to the increasing number ofart workers who are interested in architecture in its relation tothose accessory arts in which they are engaged. Lastly ; it isbelieved that a work in which architecture is treated as a resultand record of civilization, will prove attractive to that increasingpublic which interests itself in artistic development.29, NEW BRIDGE STREET,LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.G.New Year's Day, 1896. PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. XInecessarily technical and intolerably dry, and difficult to follow,even by those who have had the technical training, and haveeither the building or complete drawings of it before them. Theyhave therefore provided the largest possible number of illustrations,and have confined the text to brief, but it is hoped vivid, notes ofthe special qualities and characteristics of the building referred to.It is hoped that the book will appeal not only to students whorequire an outline of architectural history as part of their artisticand professional education, but also to the increasing number ofart workers who are interested in architecture in its relation tothose accessory arts in which they are engaged. Lastly ; it isbelieved that a work in which architecture is treated as a resultand record of civilization, will prove attractive to that increasingpublic which interests itself in artistic development.29, NEW BRIDGE STREET,LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.G.New Year's Day, 1896.

PAGEList of Illustrations xv liPrehistoric ArchitectureiPART I. THE HISTORICAL STYLES.General Introduction ........... 4Egyptian Architecture .......... 9Western Asiatic Architecture ..... .... 32Greek Architecture ........... 45Roman Architecture . . . . . . . . . . 111Early Christian Architecture . . . . . . . . .176Byzantine Architecture .......... 192Romanesque Architecture in Europe (General Introduction) . . .217Italian Romanesque .......... 228French Romanesque .......... 246German Romanesque .......... 258Gothic Architecture in Europe (General Introduction) .... 267English Architecture . . . . . . . . . .278Anglo-Saxon .....>...... 3.27Norman ......... .... 328Early English Gothic . . . .-' V . . . . 335Decorated Gothic .... . . . . . . .341Perpendicular Gothic . . .. .... . . . 349Tudor /\ . 356Scottish Architecture ." 359Irish Architecture . . . '
3French Gothic Architecture . . . .. ". . - 362Belgian and Dutch Gothic .
,, ,, 1851 to present time . 593British Colonial Architecture597Architecture in the United States . . 598PART I. THE NON-HISTORICAL STYLES.General Introduction ........... 603Indian Architecture . . . . . . . . . . , 6051. The Buddhist Style 6122. The Jaina Style . . . . . . . . . , 6143. The Hindu Style 618(a) Northern Hindu ...... \. 618(b) Chalukyan . . . . . . . .
,, ' ,, plan BPortion of shaft of columncCapital of a column DThe Gate of Lions, Mycenae EAcropolis at Tiryns, plan F16. Greek Examples I.Greek ConstructionPortico of Parthenon, half elevation . A
,, ,, half transversesectionB
,, ,, part plancS.W. angle of Parthenon as restored . D, E, FRestoration of a Doric entablature . . G, H, jS.W. angle of Parthenon as at present . K, L17. Plan ofthe Acropolis at Athens18. Greek Examples I.Comparative plans of various forms ofTemples.19. Greek Examples II.The Doric Order-Temple of Ceres at Paestum ... ATemple of Neptune (the Great Temple)at Paestum ..... BTemple of Aphaia on the Island ofEgina ...... cTemple of Theseus (The Theseion),Athens DThe Parthenon (Temple of Athena),Athens ...... KTemple of Apollo, at Delos . . ." F20. Greek Examples IV.Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter Panhellenius)at JEgina,

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XV11GREEK ARCHITECTURE.No. Name,14. Map of Greece.5. Pelasgic System of Construction.Treasury of Athens, section ... A

,, ,, , plan" I

,, ., ,, longitudinal sec-tion ^y.^ ,, ,, ,, view of upperAcroterionridgeAcroteriontile.View of lowerAcroterionAntefixse .

Authorities. Gailhabaud.f Perrot and{ Chipiez.I Gailhabaud.

Cockerell.Penrose.f Perrot and( Chipiez.Penrose.f Penrose andI others. Stuart andRevett,Cockerell.

>C.R. Cockerell. F.A.

XV111 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.No. Name.21. Greek Examples V.The so-called Theseion, or Temple ofHephaestos

,, ., half south elevation, halflongitudinal section ofambulatory/plan . . (.

,, ,, plan of existing Lacunaria

,, ,, Metopes, north andsouth sides

., ,, setting out of flutes , , , , section of entablature

, , , , frieze of west cella wall .

,, ,, plan of cornice lookingup| .

,, ,, detail elevation of enta-blature22. The Theseion, Athens23. Greek Examples VI.The Parthenon, Athens : longitudinalsection .

,, ,, (half seNaos

,, ,, half seOpist ,, ,, east fa9ade

,, ,, view fror

., ,, sectionalend,, view ofangleplan . ,, ,, methodcolumns .

,, ,, statue ofParthenos24. The Parthenon, Athens. View of angle25. Greek Examples VII.Comparative Restorations ofthe Methodsof Lighting the Interiors of GreekTemplesMethod of lighting by clerestory .Method of lighting by skylight26. Greek Examples VIII.The Propylaea, Athens, west fa9ade .,, longitudinal section,, details of InteriorOrderi, ., cornice looking up

Authorities. Stuart andRevett.

JPhoto.Michaelis.>n through

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XIXNo, Name. Authorities.26. Greek Examples VIII. continued.The Propylaea, section through mutule .' plan .transverse section27. Greek Examples IX.Temple of Apollo Epicurius, at Bassae,, north elevation,, transverse section,, plan,, long, section,, detail of InteriorOrder . ,, ,, plan of InteriorOrder .

, , , , detail of single Corin-thian column

,, ,, details of capital ofCorinthian column ,, ,, setting out of flutes .

., ,, large details ofmouldings .28. Greek Examples X.The Temple of Neptune, Psestum, plan . ,, ,, long, section

,, ,, elevationTemple at Paestum (the Basilica), plan .

,, ,, elevation .Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae,plan ,, ,, ,, elevation .

,, ,, ,, sectionChoragic monument of Lysicrates, AthensPlan, elevation, and section .Tower of the Winds, Athens, elevation . ,, ,, ,, section

,, ,, plan.Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigen-tum, Sicily, planTemple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigen-tum, Sicily, section ....Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigen-tum, elevation .....29. Greek Examples XI.The Ionic Order-Temple on the Ilissus . . .The Erechtheion, east porticoThe Archaic Temple of Diana, Ephesus .Temple of Minerva Polias at PrieneTemple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae .Temple at Eleusis . . . . ~;-\.30. Greek Examples XII.The Erechtheion, Athens, sketch fromN.w. ; . w /., 'east elevation S--'}- **<"'

EF \ Penrose.G J

EFGH, JKL, M, N j > Cockerell.

Gailhabaud,Durand.

Cockerell.Stuart andRevett. Cockerell.I (Vol. IV. Stuart(and Revett's' Athens.')

A. B, c, D ) Stuart and.E, F, G J Revett.H, j, K Murray.L, M Mauch.N, o, P Cockerell.Q, R Mauch.) Inwood,A L MiddletonB ) and others.

X LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.No, Name.30. Greek Examples XII. continued.The Erechtheion, west elevation .

., ,, plan,, enlarged elevation ofCaryatid Porch31. Greek Examples XIII.Temple of Diana at Ephesus, view 6?front fa9ade\.planHeraion at Olympia, plan,, section ....32. Choragic Monument of Lysicrates,Athens33- andThe
Comparative Examples of GreekRoman Corinthian Capitals.Capital of column to portico,Pantheon, RomeTypical Roman Acanthus leaf ., .Plans of capital (A) looking upDiagram of relative sizes of Pantheon,Rome, and the Stoa, Athens . .Angle view of capital from the Stoa,Athens ......Plans of capital, looking up . . .Typical example of Greek Acanthus leafComparative Examples of Greek andRoman Theatres.Typical Greek theatre ...Roman theatre at OrangeGreek Examples XIV.Mausoleum at Halicarnassos, transversesection ....,, half plans of basement andperistyle,, west fa?ade,, enlarged capital, base andentablature
, , south fa9ade,, three other restorations:36. Greek Examples XV.Lion Tomb, Cnidus, south elevation .,, section '. .,, west elevation,, half plans of peristyle androof,, plan through baseSarcophagus from a tomb at Cnidus, endelevation . , .,, side elevation . . ."Tomb of the Weepers'1

Authorities.

Inwood,Middletonand others.

[ Murray. Photo.

Taylor andCresy, Stuartand Revett. Cockerell.

Newton andPullan.

> Society ofDilettanti.

,, ,, ,, details .38. Comparative diagrams of the Greek andRoman Orders of Architecture.Greek Doric Temple of Theseus atAthensRoman Doric, by VignolaGreek Ionic Temple on the Ilissus,Athens ......Roman Ionic, by Scamozzi .Greek Corinthian Choragic Monumentof Lysicrates, AthensRoman Corinthian Pantheon, Rome .Comparison of Greek and RomanMouldings IComparison of Greek and RomanMouldings I39-40.41. Greek Ornament I.The Ionic VoluteVolute from Cyprian tomb .Capital from Egyptian wall paintingBronze armour plate from Tamassos,Cyprus . . ....Capital from Neandria ....Capital from the Heraion at OlympiaIonic Lycian tomb ....Goldman's method of describing IonicVoluteIonic Volute described by a whelk-shellAngle capital, N. portico of Erechtheion,half section,, half front view . .,, side view ....,, plan, looking up .Temple of Nike Apteros, sketch of angle42. Greek Ornament I.Scroll ornament from roof of choragicMonument of Lysicrates, AthensSanctuary of the Bulls, Delosenlarged triglyphs, side view .

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XXINo. Name.37. Comparative Examples of Greek andRoman Doorways.Doorway of the Pantheon, Rome,elevation ......Doorway of the Pantheon, Rome, detailsDoorway, Erechtheion, Athens, elevation ,, ,, front viewenlarged capital, side view

,, ,, front view .key planplan of piers . ...elevation of piers .Canephora . . .. . ....,.-.

AB, cDE to H A to MN to V

Authorities. Mauch andDonaldson.

(Parte 1 de 5)

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