Ahr W1 H. Geologyof Carbonate Reservoirs

Ahr W1 H. Geologyof Carbonate Reservoirs

(Parte 1 de 8)

The Identifi cation, Description, and Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks

WAYNE M. AHR Texas A&M University

The Identifi cation, Description, and Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in Carbonate Rocks

WAYNE M. AHR Texas A&M University

Copyright © 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Ahr, Wayne M.

Geology of carbonate reservoirs : the identifi cation, description, and characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs in carbonate rocks / Wayne M. Ahr. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-0-470-16491-4 (cloth) 1. Rocks, Carbonate. 2. Carbonate reservoirs–Geology. 3. Geology, Stratigraphic. I. Title. QE471.15.C3.A34 2008 553.2’8—dc22 2007051417

Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

PREFACE xi ABOUT THIS BOOK xv

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Defi nition of Carbonate Reservoirs / 2 1.1.1 Carbonates / 2 1.1.2 Reservoirs / 4 1.2 Finding and Developing Carbonate Reservoirs / 6 1.2.1 Sources of Data on Reservoirs / 7 1.3 Unique Attributes of Carbonates / 9

Suggestions for Further Reading / 12 Review Questions / 12

2 CARBONATE RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES 13

2.1 Defi nitions / 13 2.2 Fundamental Rock Properties / 14 2.2.1 Texture / 15 2.2.2 Fabric / 18 2.2.3 Composition / 20 2.2.4 Sedimentary Structures / 20 2.3 Classifi cation of Carbonate Rocks / 20 2.3.1 Classifi cation of Detrital Carbonates / 27 2.3.2 Classifi cation of Reef Rocks / 28 2.3.3 Wright’s Genetic Classifi cation / 30 vi CONTENTS

2.4 Dependent or Derived Rock Properties / 30 2.4.1 Porosity / 31 2.4.1.1Porosity Classifi cations / 34 2.4.1.2The Archie Classifi cation / 35 2.4.1.3The Choquette–Pray Classifi cation / 36 2.4.1.4The Lucia Classifi cation / 39

2.4.2 A New Genetic Classifi cation for Carbonate Porosity / 42

2.4.3 Permeability / 4 2.5 Tertiary Rock Properties / 47 2.5.1 Borehole Logs and Carbonate Reservoirs / 47 2.5.2 Tertiary Rock Properties and the Seismograph / 53 Suggestions for Further Reading / 54 Review Questions / 54

3 PETROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS 56

3.1 Saturation, Wettability, and Capillarity / 56 3.1.1 Saturation / 56 3.1.2 Wettability / 62 3.1.3 Capillarity / 63 3.2 Capillary Pressure and Reservoir Performance / 64 3.2.1 Capillary Pressure, Pores, and Pore Throats / 6

3.2.2 Converting Air–Mercury Capillary Pressures to Oil–Water Equivalents / 69

3.2.3 Height of Oil Column Above Free-Water Level / 70 3.2.4 Evaluating Seal Capacity / 70 3.3 Fluid Withdrawal Effi ciency / 71

Suggestions for Further Reading / 74 Review Questions / 74

4 STRATIGRAPHIC PRINCIPLES 76

4.1 Carbonate Depositional Platforms / 7 4.1.1 Rimmed and Open Shelves / 80 4.1.2 Homoclinal and Distally Steepened Ramps / 82 4.2 Rock, Time, and Time–Rock Units / 83 4.2.1 Rock Units / 83 4.2.2 Time Units / 84 4.2.3 Time–Rock Units / 86 4.3 Correlation / 86

CONTENTS vii

4.4 Anatomy of Depositional Units / 8 4.4.1 Facies, Successions, and Sequences / 91

4.4.2 Environmental Subdivisions and Standard Depositional Successions / 93

4.5 Sequence Stratigraphy / 9 4.5.1 Defi nitions and Scales of Observation / 9 4.5.2 Sequence Stratigraphy in Carbonate Reservoirs / 102 4.5.3 Sequence Stratigraphy in Exploration and Development / 102 Suggestions for Further Reading / 104 Review Questions / 105

5 DEPOSITIONAL CARBONATE RESERVOIRS 106

5.1 Depositional Porosity / 108 5.2 Depositional Environments and Processes / 109 5.2.1 The Beach–Dune Environment / 110

5.2.2 Depositional Rock Properties in Beach–Dune Successions / 112

5.2.3 Tidal-Flat and Lagoon Environments / 117

5.2.4 Depositional Rock Properties in Tidal Flat–Lagoon Successions / 119

5.2.5 The Shallow Subtidal (Neritic) Environment / 121

5.2.6 Depositional Rock Properties in Shallow Subtidal Successions / 123

5.2.7 The Slope-Break Environment / 124

5.2.8 Depositional Rock Properties in Slope-Break Successions / 125

5.2.9 The Slope Environment / 126

5.2.10 Depositional Rock Properties in the Slope and Slope-Toe Environments / 128

5.2.1 Basinal Environments / 129

5.2.12 Depositional Rock Properties in Basinal Environments / 130

5.2.13 Ideal Depositional Successions Illustrated / 133 5.3 Paleotopography and Depositional Facies / 134 5.4 Diagnosis and Mapping of Depositional Reservoirs / 137

Suggestions for Further Reading / 141 Review Questions / 141

6 DIAGENETIC CARBONATE RESERVOIRS 144

(Parte 1 de 8)

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