Ictiofauna do Araguaia

Ictiofauna do Araguaia

(Parte 1 de 2)

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There is an urgent need of ichthyofaunal studies in the region of the Araguaia River and its tributaries, as they form one of the most important river systems of South America and also because of several other aspects already presented, which makes this area an interesting spot for water resources and aquatic biota diversity studies (Dias et al. 2000). Sá et al. (2003) emphasize the importance of the streams from the Cerrado biome, which represents a considerable part of the Araguaia River basin.This study aims to inventory, through Rapid Assessment

Program (RAP), the fish fauna from the Carrapato, Caba Saco and Mutum streams, which form the Pau D’Arco River (Arraia River micro-basin, Araguaia River basin) and the Preto River (Preto River micro-basin, Araguaia River basin) in the Serra dos Carajás region, in the state of Pará. Materials and Methods

Study SiteThe collections were held at the Araguaia River basin, in the Caba Saco, Mutum (tributaries of Pau D’Arco River) and Carrapato (tributary of Preto River) streams (Figure 1), in the municipalities of Redenção and Santa Maria das Barreiras, in the Serra dos Carajás region, southeastern Pará. The collections were held under the IBAMA (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis) permit number: 154/2007.

Data collectionThe methodology used was a fast inventory (RAP - Rapid Assessment Program) following Latini and Petrere

(2004) with modifications. Four visits to each sample area were made between December 2009 and January 2010. In each visit, four types of data collection were used: open interviews with local fishermen; naked eye fish surveying

Introduction

The Neotropical ichthyofauna is dominated by fishes that have a relatively old association with freshwater habitats (Lovejoy et al. 2006). The Araguaia River is part of the Tocantins-Araguaia River basin which is one of the major river systems in South America (Lundberg 1998). Its complex geomorphological and climatic formation has an intrinsic relation to the fact that the drainage area includes major phytogeographic regions such as Cerrado, Amazon Forest and palm three forest (Mata de Cocais), thereby concentrating an important biodiversity, with a high level of endemism and outstanding natural value (Zuanon 2001; Dias et al. 2000; Latrubesse and Stevaux 2006).Fish fauna studies from the Tocantins-Araguaia River basin are mostly concentrated in the in the main river channels of this basin, some of them in the upper Araguaia region (Lowe McConnel 1991; Venere et al. 1999; Benedito-Cecilio et al. 2004; Melo et al. 2004; Silva et al. 2009). Other studies focused the lower Tocantins region, mainly due to ichthyofaunistic studies related to the construction of Tucuruí Dam and other hydroelectric projects in the region (Santos et al. 1984; Carvalho and Merona 1986; Camargo and Petrere-Jr. 2004; Santos et al. 2004; Merona et al. 2010). In this vast region, studies on the freshwater fish communities of brooks and streams have been rather neglected, although they deserve special attention, also because they are the most affected and threatened by human activities (Agostinho et al. 2005; Barletta et al. 2010; Nogueira et al. 2010). Buckup (1999) and Sá et al.

(2003) highlighted the diversity of fish that these small water courses present, indicating high levels of endemic and/or rare species. These biotic characteristics of the streams justify the urgency of studying the ichthyofauna that occurs in these streams (Buckup 1999). Check List | Volume 7 | Issue 4 | 2011

Abstract: The ichthyofaunistic studies from the Tocantins-Araguaia River Basin are mainly concentrated in the main channel of the Araguaia and Tocantins rivers, due to faunal studies required for hydroelectric projects. Brooks and streams are usually neglected, though they represent the habitats most threatened by human activities. These small water courses present a great diversity of fishes, and they also have high rates of endemic species. The study was conducted from December 2009 to January 2010. For the inventory, the methodology used was the Rapid Assessment Program (RAP). In each sampled area three types of data collection were utilized: open interviews with local fishermen, naked eye fish surveying, and fishing with cast nets and gill nets. This study aimed to identify the main fish species that occur in the Mutum and Caba Saco streams, that form the Pau D’Arco River, and in the Carrapato Stream that flows to the Preto River, both belonging to the Araguaia River Basin.

1 Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas. CEP 36570-0. Tangará da Serra, MT, Brasil. 2 Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Biologia Animal. CEP 36570-0. Viçosa, MG, Brasil. * Corresponding author. E-mail: patricia_giongo@yahoo.com.br

Patrícia Giongo 1*, Wagner Martins Santana Sampaio 2, Frederico Belei 2, Fabricia Kohler de Carvalho 1, Anderson Fernandes 1 and Jorge Abdala Dergam 2

Ichthyofauna of the Carrapato, Mutum and Caba Saco streams (Araguaia River Basin), Serra dos Carajás region, southeastern Pará, Brazil

Giongo et al. | Ichthyofauna of three streams of the Araguaia River Basin, Brazil

Check List | Volume 7 | Issue 4 | 2011 on the riverside; fishing with gill nets; and fishing with 15 m – mesh cast nets. The gill nets were set in groups of six at a time, all of them having the same length (10 meters) and height (1.6 meters), and mesh sizes 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 m, measured between adjacent knots

(which allows the capture of most small size fish species). The nets were set randomly so they would reach several distinct habitat physiognomies. All nets were placed for 30 minutes. The use of such nets for this time interval ensured identical collection efforts for all sampled areas, totalizing 48 m2/hour (6 nets x 10 meters long x 1.6 meters high x 0.5 hours) in each station. The cast nets were operated using five random releases in each sample site.

Data analysis

The collected fishes were taken to the Laboratório de

Sistemática Molecular de Vertebrados, at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) to be identified using specific taxonomic keys and identification guides (Géry 1969; Santos et al. 1984, 2004; Melo et al. 2005; Britski et al. 2007) and consulting specialists. The captured fishes were identified and deposited at the Laboratório de Sistemática Molecular de Vertebrados Beagle, at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Fishes with measurements inferior to 0.4 m and 1 kg were fixed, larger specimens were returned alive to the streams, with the exception of unique or rare ones. All fishes were weighed, measured and photographed.

Figure 1. Map of the study region - localization of the rivers and the position of the sampling sites. Results and Discussion

The fishes captured and identified using a combination of methodologies called RAP (Latini and Petrere 2004) in the Caba Saco, Mutum and Carrapato streams, were distributed in 37 species, in 3 genera from 14 families and five orders: Characiformes (Characidae, Erythrinidae, Anostomidae, Hemiodontidae, Prochilodontidae, Curimatidae, Acestrorhynchidae, Cynodontidae, Ctenoluciidae), Siluriformes (Loricariidae, Pimelodidae), Perciformes (Cichlidae), Synbranchiformes (Synbranchidae), and Rajiformes (Potamotrygonidae) (Table 1). Among these families, Characidae (Characiformes) and Cichlidae (Perciformes) represented the greater species richness, with 13 and six species, respectively. Siluriformes were only represented by four species belonging to two families (Loricariidae and Pimelodidae), while the Synbranchidae and Potamotrygonidae by a single species, each. Other studies in the Tocantins-Araguaia River basin also report the order Characiformes as the most diverse, followed by Siluriformes (Aloísio et al. 2005; Melo et al. 2005; Lucinda et al. 2007) and not by Perciformes as occurred in this study.Carrapato Stream concentrated a higher level of richness and abundance that may be related to its greater water volume and the strong influence of major rivers, such as the Preto and Araguaia (Table 1). This fact justifies the presence of large species like Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos and Potamotrygon motoro,

Giongo et al. | Ichthyofauna of three streams of the Araguaia River Basin, Brazil

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Table 1. Species surveyed with RAP protocols in some streams of the Araguaia Basin. Popular names; taxonomic classification; sample station: 1- Carrapato Stream, 2- Caba Saco Stream, 3- Mutum Stream; Species category: N-native, RI- Reportedly introduced, CR- critically endangered (Rosa and Lima 2008); method of collection: G – Gill net, C – Casting net, IN – Interview, NS – Naked eye surveying.

CHARACIFORMES Characidae Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758)Lambari, tambiú1, 2, 3NG/C Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816Pataca1NG/C Moenkhausia sp. Piaba1, 2, 3NG Brycon sp. Piabanha1NG Chalceus epakros Zanata and Toledo-Piza, 2004Piaba do rabo vermelho1NG Triportheus trifurcatus (Castelnau, 1855).Sardinha1NG Roeboides affinis (Günther, 1868)Corcunda1, 2, 3NG/C Mylossoma duriventre (Cuvier, 1818)Pacu1NG Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818)Caranha1N/RIIN Serrasalmus geryi Jégu and Santos, 1988Piranha Branca1NG Serrasalmus manueli (Fernández-Yépez and Ramírez, 1967)Xupita1NG Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766)Piranha preta1, 3NG Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858Piranha vermelha1NG Erythrinidae

Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829)Jeju1, 2, 3NGHoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794)Traíra1, 2, 3NG

AnostomidaeLeporinus friderici (Bloch, 1794)Piau cabeça gorda1, 2, 3NG/C Schizodon vittatus (Valenciennes,1850)Piau vara1NG Prochilodontidae Prochilodus nigrans Agassiz, 1829Papa terra1N/RIIN Curimatidae Curimata cyprinoides (Linnaeus, 1766)Branquinha1, 2, 3NG Steindachnerina amazonica (Steindachner, 1911)Branquinha1, 2, 3NG Steindachnerina gracilis Vari and Vari, 1989Branquinha1, 2, 3NG Acestrorhynchidae Acestrorhynchus falcatus (Bloch, 1794)Cachorrinho3NG Cynodontidae Rhaphiodon vulpinus Spix and Agassiz, 1829Chacorra-facão1NG Ctenoluciidae Boulengerella cuvieri (Agassiz, 1829)Bicuda1NG

HemiodontidaeHemiodus unimaculatus (Bloch, 1794)Voador1NG PERCIFORMES Cichlidae Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz, 1831)Cara-açú1N/RIG/C Cichla monoculus Spix and Agassiz, 1831Tucunaré de crista1N/RIIN Cichla ocellaris Bloch and Schneider, 1801Tucunaré1N/RIG

Crenicichla cyclostoma Ploeg 1986Joaninha1, 2, 3N/CRGGeophagus surinamensis (Bloch, 1791)Rola – Pedra1, 2, 3NG Aequidens duopunctatus Haseman, 1911Cará1, 2, 3NC SILURIFORMES Loricariidae Hypostomus sp. Cascudo1, 2, 3NG Pimelodidae Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes, 1840Mandi1, 2, 3N/RIG Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840Jiripoca1N/RIIN Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus, 1766)Pintado1N/RIIN SYNBRANCHIFORMES Synbranchidae Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 1785Mussum1, 2, 3NNS MYLIOBATIFORMES Potamotrygonidae Potamotrygon motoro (Muller and Henle, 1841)Arraia de fogo1NNS

Giongo et al. | Ichthyofauna of three streams of the Araguaia River Basin, Brazil

Check List | Volume 7 | Issue 4 | 2011 which were found only in this stream, in addition to the occurrence of species from large rivers that rarely appear in small tributaries, except during the spawning season (e g. Hemiodus unimaculatus, Triportheus trifurcatus and Schizodon vittatus) (Buckup 1999; Melo et al. 2005). The Mutum and Caba Saco streams had a small portion of the fish species present in the Carrapato stream fish, probably due to the small size of these streams, with high seasonal fluctuations of water volume and therefore do not sustain the large species (Esteves and Aranha 1999).Through interviews, it was evident that the region is subjected to an intense process of native fish aquaculture activities that may explain the presence of large fish species in these small streams. This introduction occurs mainly by accidental events, such as disruption of dams and artificial ponds. Local fishermen indicated the following species as being recently introduced: Caranha (Piaractus brachypomus), Tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris, C. monoculus), Papa-terra (Prochilodus nigrans), Cara-açú (Astronotus ocellatus), Pintado (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum), and Jiripoca (Hemisorubim platyrhynchos). The situation described may be worrisome: although all the surveyed species were native to the Tocantins-Araguaia River Basin, the effects of species introduction in habitats or river stretches where they do not occur naturally (therefore disrupting original community composition, as explained by the River Continuum Concept (Vannote et al. 1980). This faunal mixing goes against the currently accepted concept that native species are less harmful than exotics. When a lowland species is introduced in higher reaches of the same drainage it may find some conditions that usually favor invasive species success: lack of predators or diseases, low diversity and vacant niches (Pimm 1989). This study reported the presence of an endangered species, commonly known as the Joaninha (Crenicichla cyclostoma), in the three streams mentioned (Rosa and

Lima 2008; Albernaz and Avila-Pires 2009). Rosa and Lima (2008) indicated the last recordings of this species in the 1980s, before and shortly after the construction of the Hydroelectric Dam in Tucuruí. The specimens captured in this study were collected in possible home range indicated by Rosa and Lima (2008) in the Araguaia basin, at the end of the middle portion and the start of the lower portion of this basin. In the Serras dos Carajás region, the main threats to this species are habitat destruction for mineral exploration, deforestation and hydroelectric dams (Casatti 2010). Nogueira et al. (2010) reported that the Araguaia-Tocantins River Basin has 2 critical areas containing approximately 101 species, all of which are currently living in restricted ranges and that could potentially be included in the endangered species lists. Ichthyofaunal studies from the Amazon River Basin and the river systems connected to it, as the Tocantins-Araguaia River Basin, are still very scarce, especially the ones focusing habitats such as small streams and brooks. Faunal inventories are essential for understanding the still largely unknown diversity of Neotropical fishes (Langeani et al. 2009; Casatti et al. 2010). The RAP methodology seemed to be an efficient tool for carrying out ichthyofaunal surveys, because it allows complementation of standard collecting devices (gill nets and cast nets) with naked eye surveying and interviews.

Acknowledgments: We thank Heldo Santana Sampaio for the assistance during the collections, Linjandelson Mundoca, member and president of the Santa Maria das Barreiras City Council, for his assistance in determining the sampling areas and contacts with the local fishermen, and Wilder Santana Sampaio for allowing the collecting activities in his farms.

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